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Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and a state of abnormal inflammatory response. The Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 has an important role in inflammation and immunity, and its expression has been reported in most tissues of the body, including the insulin-sensitive ones. Because it is activated by lipopolysaccharide and saturated fatty acids, which(More)
Mechanical overload elicits functional and structural adaptive mechanisms in cardiac muscle. Signaling pathways linked to integrin/cytoskeleton complexes may have a function in mediation of the effects of mechanical stimulus in myocardial cells. We investigated the tyrosine phosphorylation and the assembly of the multicomponent signaling complex associated(More)
Evidence demonstrates that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and the NO produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can induce insulin resistance in muscle. Here, we investigated whether this insulin resistance could be mediated by S-nitrosation of proteins involved in early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway. Exogenous NO donated by(More)
Insulin rapidly stimulates tyrosine kinase activity of its receptor resulting in phosphorylation of its cytosolic substrate, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which in turn associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), thus activating the enzyme. Glucocorticoid treatment is known to produce insulin resistance, but the exact molecular(More)
In animal models of diet-induced obesity, the activation of an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus produces molecular and functional resistance to the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. The primary events triggered by dietary fats that ultimately lead to hypothalamic cytokine expression and inflammatory signaling are unknown. Here, we test the(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the insulin resistance associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in two different models of obesity, diet-induced obesity and the ob/ob mice, is mediated by S-nitrosation of proteins involved in insulin signal transduction: insulin receptor beta-subunit (IRbeta), insulin receptor substrate(More)
OBJECTIVE A high-protein diet (HPD) is known to promote the reduction of body fat, but the mechanisms underlying this change are unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) function as majors regulators of cellular metabolism that respond to changes in energy status, and recent data demonstrated that they also play(More)
To determine the possible existence of a relationship between insulin resistance and sympathetic nervous system activity in essential hypertension, we calculated the double cross index for 14 hypertensive subjects and 14 normotensive subjects submitted to the oral glucose test. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were similar in hypertensive and normotensive(More)
Insulin rapidly stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein of approximately 185 kD in most cell types. This protein, termed insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), has been implicated in insulin signal transmission based on studies with insulin receptor mutants. In the present study we have examined the levels of IRS-1 and the phosphorylation state of(More)
Angiotensin II (AII), acting via its G-protein linked receptor, is an important regulator of cardiac, vascular, and renal function. Following injection of AII into rats, we find that there is also a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the major insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) in the heart. This phenomenon appears to involve JAK2 tyrosine(More)