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Standard cell culture systems impose environmental oxygen (O(2)) levels of 20%, whereas actual tissue O(2) levels in both developing and adult brain are an order of magnitude lower. To address whether proliferation and differentiation of CNS precursors in vitro are influenced by the O(2) environment, we analyzed embryonic day 12 rat mesencephalic precursor(More)
  • Marie Csete
  • 2005
Cultivation of stem cells, like all cells in culture, is performed under conditions that cannot and do not replicate normal physiologic conditions. For example, direct exposure of cultured monolayer cells to serum contents is normally prevented in vivo by the vasculature. The heterogeneity of cells and signals between different cell types in an organ is(More)
We describe a novel phenotype in mice lacking the major antioxidant enzyme, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1(-/-) mice), namely a dramatic acceleration of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. Sod1(-/-) mice are 17 to 20% smaller and have a significantly lower muscle mass than wild-type mice as early as 3 to 4 months of age. Muscle mass in the Sod1(-/-)(More)
Highly organized, universal structures underlying biological and technological networks mediate effective trade-offs among efficiency, robustness and evolvability, with predictable fragilities that can be used to understand disease pathogenesis. The aims of this article are to describe the features of one common organizational architecture in biology, the(More)
We report on generation of dopamine neurons from long-term cultures of human fetal mesencephalic precursor cells. These CNS precursor cells were successfully expanded in vitro using the mitogens epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Incubation of these cultures in 3% atmospheric oxygen resulted in higher cellular yields than(More)
Major problems in stem cell biology revolve around defining the developmental potential of cell populations and understanding how their potential is maintained or progressively restricted. Oxygen (O(2)) is an obvious environmental factor which has received little attention in culturing skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In this work, we examine the effects(More)
Isolated neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) differentiate to autonomic neurons in response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in clonal cultures, but these neurons do not express sympathoadrenal (SA) lineage markers. Whether this reflects a developmental restriction in NCSCs or simply inappropriate culture conditions was not clear. We tested the growth and(More)
Inflammation is a complex, multi-scale biologic response to stress that is also required for repair and regeneration after injury. Despite the repository of detailed data about the cellular and molecular processes involved in inflammation, including some understanding of its pathophysiology, little progress has been made in treating the severe inflammatory(More)
Mice lacking glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1) have decreased resistance to systemically administered oxidants as well as infections, and sustain increased damage after ischemia-reperfusion injuries. However, stem or progenitor cell function in these animals has not been studied. We characterized patterns of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of(More)