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Entry of human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1) into target cells requires both CD(4)and one of the chemokine receptors. Viruses predominantly use one, or occasionally both, of the major co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, although other receptors, including CCR2B and CCR3, function as minor co-receptors. A 32-nucleotide deletion (D32) within the b-chemokine(More)
Free-living adult Amblyomma incisum ticks were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area at Intervales State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. From an A. incisum specimen, rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Rickettsial isolation was confirmed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and(More)
Astroviruses have been associated with enteric disorders in many animal species, including chickens. Here, we describe the isolation, propagation, and pathological characteristics of chicken astrovirus (CAstV) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) from chickens with diarrhea and runting-stunting syndrome. The CEE were inoculated via(More)
Evidence for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection was investigated among a group of four previously HIV-1 infected transfusion recipients (and the four implicated HIV-1 infected donors) identified by the Transfusion Safety Study, and two groups of 4 and 5 Brazilian injection drug users, who consistently injected themselves using shared(More)
Ranaviruses (Iridoviridae) are increasingly associated with mortality events in amphibians, fish, and reptiles. They have been recently associated with mass mortality events in Brazilian farmed tadpoles of the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802. The objectives of the present study were to further characterize the virus isolated from sick R.(More)
Diarrhea in piglets directly affects commercial swine production. The disease results from the interaction of pathogens with the host immune system and is also affected by management procedures. Several pathogenic agents such as Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., group A rotavirus (RV-A), coronaviruses(More)
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