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This paper is a review of the results of the authors obtained in a long-term experiment on fox domestication. Debatable issues of dog evolution are discussed in light of these results. It is demonstrated that genetic physiological mechanisms of the behavior transformation during selection and the nature of the arising phenotypic changes are associated with(More)
We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the(More)
During the second part of the twentieth century, Belyaev selected tame and aggressive foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in an effort known as the "farm-fox experiment", to recapitulate the process of animal domestication. Using these tame and aggressive foxes as founders of segregant backcross and intercross populations we have employed interval mapping to identify a(More)
Two strains of the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), with markedly different behavioral phenotypes, have been developed by long-term selection for behavior. Foxes from the tame strain exhibit friendly behavior towards humans, paralleling the sociability of canine puppies, whereas foxes from the aggressive strain are defensive and exhibit aggression to humans. To(More)
Dogs have an unusual ability for reading human communicative gestures (e.g., pointing) in comparison to either nonhuman primates (including chimpanzees) or wolves . Although this unusual communicative ability seems to have evolved during domestication , it is unclear whether this evolution occurred as a result of direct selection for this ability, as(More)
The silver fox, a variant of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), is a close relative of the dog (Canis familiaris). Cytogenetic differences and similarities between these species are well understood, but their genomic organizations have not been compared at higher resolution. Differences in their behavior also remain unexplained. Two silver fox strains(More)
The morphology of Al2O3, ZrO2/Y2O3, AIN, B4C, BN, SiC, Si3N4, TiB2, TiC, TiN ceramic, graphite and diamond powders has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the specific area of each powder was determined with the BET method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations have been carried out in order to evaluate the crystallinity and determine(More)
Plant and animal karyotypes sometimes contain variable elements, that are referred to as additional or B-chromosomes. It is generally believed that B-chromosomes lack major genes and represent parasitic and selfish elements of a genome. Here we report, for the first time, the localization of a gene to B-chromosomes of mammals: red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and(More)
Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species(More)
A frequency of more than 10(-2) of the de novo appearance of piebald spotting (star) was established in silver-black foxes selected for domestic behavior. The star phenotype is determined by the autosomal semidominant gene S. Ten genealogical groups of foxes, in which star arose independently, were analyzed. Of these, the star character is determined by S(More)