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Preclinical and clinical evidence shows that cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)-mediated prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) overexpression plays an important role in tumor growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. It has been shown that expression of NAD(+)-linked 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a key enzyme responsible for PGE(2) inactivation, is(More)
In recent years, it has been established that programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1)-mediated inhibition of activated PD-1+ T lymphocytes plays a major role in tumor escape from immune system during cancer progression. Lately, the anti-PD-L1 and -PD-1 immune therapies have become an important tool for treatment of advanced human cancers, including(More)
Many cancers are known to produce high amounts of PGE(2), which is involved in both tumor progression and tumor-induced immune dysfunction. The key enzyme responsible for the biological inactivation of PGE(2) in tissue is NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). It is well established that cancer cells frequently show down-regulated(More)
Malignant forms of glioma, the most common primary brain tumors, remain poorly responsive to multimodality therapeutic interventions, including chemotherapy. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are important distinctive features that contribute to the malignant phenotype of glioma. We have developed the vascular endothelial growth factor(More)
Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its cognate receptor KDR has been linked to a more aggressive phenotype of human prostate carcinomas. The importance of signal transduction through the VEGF receptor 2 is illustrated by use of soluble KDR, which binds to VEGF and sequesters this ligand before its binding to cellular receptor.(More)
Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors are well suited for gene therapy. However, tissue-selective transduction by systemically administered Ad5-based vectors is confounded by viral particle sequestration in the liver. Hexon-modified Ad5 expressing reporter gene under transcriptional control by the immediate/early cytomegalovirus (CMV) or the Roundabout 4(More)
Combined treatment using adenoviral (Ad)-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and radiation therapy has the potential to become a powerful method of cancer therapy. We have developed an Ad vector encoding a mutant bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) gene (AdbCD-D314A), which has a higher affinity for cytosine than wild-type bCD (bCDwt). The purpose of this study(More)
New approaches targeting metastatic neovasculature are needed. Payload capacity, cellular transduction efficiency, and first-pass cellular uptake following systemic vector administration, motivates persistent interest in tumor vascular endothelial cell (EC) adenoviral (Ad) vector targeting. While EC transductional and transcriptional targeting has been(More)
The combination of molecular chemotherapy with radiation therapy has the potential to become a powerful approach for treatment of pancreatic cancer. We have developed an adenoviral vector (AdbCD-D314A) encoding a mutant bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) gene, which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the active drug 5-fluorouracil. The aim of(More)
Specific activation of apoptosis in tumor cells offers a promising approach for cancer therapy. Induction of apoptosis leads to activation of specific proteases. Two major pathways for caspase activation in mammalian cells have been described. One apoptotic pathway involves members of the tumor necrosis factor family of cytokine receptors (eg death receptor(More)