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Elementary school children with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a control group or an 8-session Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training program. The program focused on (a) primary control (changing objective conditions to fit one's wishes; e.g., through activity selection and goal attainment) and (b) secondary(More)
This article reports results from an early intervention program aimed at preventing the development of anxiety in preschool children. Children were selected if they exhibited a high number of withdrawn/inhibited behaviors--one of the best identified risk factors for later anxiety disorders--and were randomly allocated to either a 6-session parent-education(More)
Research thus far links depressive symptoms in children to one type of control-related belief: low levels of perceived personal competence. However, child research, unlike adult research, has not supported a linkage between depressive symptoms and another theoretically important control-related belief: perceived noncontingency of outcomes. Here we(More)
The expression of different isoforms of the contractile protein myosin plays a major role in determining contractile characteristics in both cardiac and skeletal muscle in the adult. There is little evidence pertaining to putative changes in myosin phenotype during cardiac embryogenesis or if such changes could play a role in modulating the contractile(More)
We have utilized a key biochemical determinant of muscle fiber type, myosin isoform expression, to investigate the initial developmental program of future fast and slow skeletal muscle fibers. We examined myosin heavy chain (HC) phenotype from the onset of myogenesis in the limb bud muscle masses of the chick embryo through the differentiation of individual(More)
OBJECTIVE Increasing evidence for the importance of several risk factors for anxiety disorders is beginning to point to the possibility of prevention. Early interventions targeting known risk for anxiety have rarely been evaluated. The authors evaluated the medium-term (3-year) effects of a parent-focused intervention for anxiety in inhibited preschool-age(More)
In 39 out of 95 normal specimens, there was either no commissure between the anterior and medial leaflets of the tricuspid valve, which resulted in an interrupted valve margin at the center of the membranous ventricular septum, or an incompletely formed commissure. It is suggested that one end of this spectrum of normal anatomic variations could have a(More)
This anatomic study suggests that an understanding of the thickness of the atrial septum should allow better visualization of most portions of the blade-shaped atrial septum during cross-sectional echocardiography, both in normal subjects and in patients with ostium secundum atrial septal defects. The thickness measurements also demonstrate that(More)
The atrial septum is a blade-shaped structure with a concave anterior margin that reflects the curve of the ascending aorta, a convex posterior margin, and an inferior margin along the mitral annulus. The fossa ovalis comprises an average of 28 per cent of the total septal area, or 43 mm.2 in infants and 240 mm.2 in adults. The channel that persists between(More)