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Elementary school children with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a control group or an 8-session Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training program. The program focused on (a) primary control (changing objective conditions to fit one's wishes; e.g., through activity selection and goal attainment) and (b) secondary(More)
This article reports results from an early intervention program aimed at preventing the development of anxiety in preschool children. Children were selected if they exhibited a high number of withdrawn/inhibited behaviors--one of the best identified risk factors for later anxiety disorders--and were randomly allocated to either a 6-session parent-education(More)
OBJECTIVE Increasing evidence for the importance of several risk factors for anxiety disorders is beginning to point to the possibility of prevention. Early interventions targeting known risk for anxiety have rarely been evaluated. The authors evaluated the medium-term (3-year) effects of a parent-focused intervention for anxiety in inhibited preschool-age(More)
Research thus far links depressive symptoms in children to one type of control-related belief: low levels of perceived personal competence. However, child research, unlike adult research, has not supported a linkage between depressive symptoms and another theoretically important control-related belief: perceived noncontingency of outcomes. Here we(More)
The atrial septum is a blade-shaped structure with a concave anterior margin that reflects the curve of the ascending aorta, a convex posterior margin, and an inferior margin along the mitral annulus. The fossa ovalis comprises an average of 28 per cent of the total septal area, or 43 mm.2 in infants and 240 mm.2 in adults. The channel that persists between(More)
In prior investigations of the psychology of drinking behavior, drinkers' positive expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol have been studied extensively. From a social cognitive point of view, however, several additional psychological factors also deserve attention, namely negative expectancies, social influence, and self-efficacy expectations. In a(More)
The application of a weight overload to the humerus of chickens induces a hypertrophy of anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle fibers. This growth is accompanied by a rapid and almost complete replacement of one slow-tonic myosin isoform, SM-1, by another slow-tonic isoform, SM-2. In addition, a population of small fibers appears mainly in extrafascicular(More)
We have utilized a key biochemical determinant of muscle fiber type, myosin isoform expression, to investigate the initial developmental program of future fast and slow skeletal muscle fibers. We examined myosin heavy chain (HC) phenotype from the onset of myogenesis in the limb bud muscle masses of the chick embryo through the differentiation of individual(More)
Families of 54 behaviorally disturbed preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: standard parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT; STD); modified PCIT that used didactic videotapes, telephone consultations, and face-to-face sessions to abbreviate treatment; and a no-treatment waitlist control group (WL).(More)