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The psychological literature currently emphasizes reporting the "effect size" of research findings in addition to the outcome of any tests of significance. However, some confusion may result from the fact that there are three distinct uses of effect sizes in the psychological literature, namely, power analysis, research synthesis, and research reporting.(More)
The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), a 30-item self-report measure, is one of the most commonly used scales for the assessment of the personality construct of impulsiveness. It has recently marked 50 years of use in research and clinical settings. The current BIS-11 is held to measure 3 theoretical subtraits, namely, attentional, motor, and non-planning(More)
Current knowledge about early plasticity and children's responsiveness to environmental modifications as well as the atheoretical nature of current nosological systems necessitate alternative models to explain the phenomena of childhood behavioral and emotional disturbances. Evolutionary biology provides one such framework. It organizes data from the(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that social contexts in early life have important and complex effects on childhood psychopathology. Spurred by the lack of an explicit operational definition that could guide the study of such effects, we define a social context operationally as "a set of interpersonal conditions, relevant to a particular behavior or disorder(More)
Increases in the availability of gambling heighten the need for a short screening measure of problem gambling. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) is a brief measure that allows for the assessment of characteristics of gambling behavior and severity and its consequences. The authors evaluate the psychometric properties of the PGSI using item response(More)
Urinary incontinence is common in the increasing numbers of aged people and is often the precipitating factor for nursing home admission. Recalcitrant incontinence may be managed by urethral catheters. In this study of a random stratified sample of Maryland nursing homes (4259 patients), we found that the daily prevalence of urethral catheter use in(More)
Although a growing body of empirical literature provides some support for the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in youth, little is known about the internal structure of BPD and the performance of the individual diagnostic criteria, especially in younger samples. We used item response theory (IRT) methods to investigate the psychometric(More)
Future research needs in the area of adolescent smokeless tobacco use are addressed, based on the studies reported in this volume covering methodologic issues and substantive directions. In addition, we outline some implications for developing preventive interventions to deter smokeless tobacco use among adolescents.
This research examines the role of friendship contingent self-esteem (FCSE), or self-esteem that is dependent on the quality of one's friendships, in predicting depressive symptoms. In Study 1, the authors developed a measure of FCSE. Both FCSE and others' approval correlated with self-esteem and depressive symptoms, but when entered simultaneously in a(More)
Despite historical concerns about the validity of the construct of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence, there is now general consensus that BPD in adolescence constitutes a valid and reliable diagnosis. Yet the development and refinement of measures to assess borderline traits in adolescents is in its infancy. Moreover, brief and(More)