Lynne M. Howells

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Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths in Western countries, but epidemiological data suggest that dietary modification might reduce these by as much as 90%. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2), an inducible isoform of prostaglandin H synthase, which mediates prostaglandin synthesis during inflammation, and which is selectively overexpressed in colon(More)
Curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric, has been shown to prevent malignancies in a variety of tissues in rodents, especially in the intestinal tract. Pharmacological activities of curcumin in cells in situ germane to chemoprevention, such as inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), require drug concentrations in the 10(-5) - 10(-4) M range.(More)
The highly inducible enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), metabolizes heme, thereby protecting a variety of cells against oxidative stress and apoptosis. Up-regulation by cancer chemopreventive agents has been reported, but its regulation and function in transformed cells are unclear. We compared induction by two dietary polyphenols, curcumin and(More)
The phytochemical resveratrol has undergone extensive preclinical investigation for its putative cancer chemopreventive properties. Low systemic availability of the parent compound due to rapid and extensive metabolism may confound its usefulness as a potential agent to prevent malignancies in organs remote from the site of absorption. Micronization allows(More)
Quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a flavone with putative ability to prevent cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Its metabolism was evaluated in rats and human. Rats received quercetin via the intravenous (i.v.) route and metabolites were isolated from the plasma, urine and bile. Analysis was by high-performance liquid chromatography and(More)
Following observations that curcumin inhibited proliferation (IC(50)=1-5 microM), invasiveness and progression through S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle in the non-tumourigenic HBL100 and tumourigenic MDA-MB-468 human breast cell lines, it was noted that apoptosis was much more pronounced in the tumour line. Therefore, the ability of curcumin to modulate(More)
We have identified a new target for the chemopreventive dietary agent indole-3-carbinol (13C) in the antiapoptotic signaling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. 13C inhibited phosphorylation and activation of PKB in the tumor-derived breast cell line MDA MB468, but not in the immortalized breast line HBL100. We(More)
Resveratrol is widely promoted as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent, but a lack of information on the optimal dose prohibits rationally designed trials to assess efficacy. To challenge the assumption that "more is better," we compared the pharmacokinetics and activity of a dietary dose with an intake 200 times higher. The dose-response relationship(More)
Genistein is thought to contribute to the putative breast cancer preventive activity of soya. The mechanisms by which it arrests the growth of breast cells are incompletely understood. In order to explore generic features of the modulation of human breast cell growth by genistein, its effects on cell lines MCF-7, ZR-75.1, T47-D, MDA-MB 468, MDA-MB 231 and(More)
There is growing interest in the ability of phytochemicals to prevent chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. However, some of these agents have poor bioavailability and many of the in-depth studies into their mechanisms of action have been carried out in vitro using doses which are unachievable in humans. In order to optimize the design of(More)