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The response of spinal cord tissue to mechanical loadings is not well understood. In this study, isolated fresh cervical spinal cord samples were obtained from cadavers at autopsy and tested in uniaxial tension at moderate strain rates. Stress relaxation experiments were performed with an applied strain rate and peak strain in the physiological range,(More)
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to visualise and quantify mechanical properties of tissue, providing information beyond what can be currently achieved with standard MR sequences and could, for instance, provide new insight into pathological processes in the brain. This study uses the MRE technique at 3 T to(More)
It has long been assumed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a newtonian fluid with viscosity similar to water, yet high protein content, has been postulated to increase the viscosity of CSF in vivo. Such an increase in viscosity may have serious implications for the effectiveness of surgical shunts implanted to re-establish the CSF flow in cases of abnormal(More)
A number of studies have investigated the mechanical properties of adult spinal cord under tension, however it is not known whether age has an effect on these properties. This is of interest to those aiming to understand the clinical differences between adults and children with spinal cord injury (e.g. severity and recovery), and those developing(More)
Ultrasound imaging was used to measure the length of muscle fascicles in human gastrocnemius muscles while the muscle was passively lengthened and shortened by moving the ankle. In some subjects the muscle belly 'buckled' at short lengths. When the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit was passively lengthened from its shortest in vivo length by dorsiflexing the(More)
BACKGROUND The cerebellum has never been mechanically characterised, despite its physiological importance in the control of motion and the clinical prevalence of cerebellar pathologies. The aim of this study was to measure the linear viscoelastic properties of the cerebellum in human volunteers using Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). METHODS Coronal(More)
The electromyographic (EMG) activity of human upper airway muscles, particularly the genioglossus, has been widely measured, but the relationship between EMG activity and physical movement of the airway muscles remains unclear. We aimed to measure the motion of the soft tissues surrounding the airway during normal and loaded inspiration on the basis of the(More)
OBJECT The mechanisms of syringomyelia have long puzzled neurosurgeons and researchers alike due to difficulties in identifying the driving forces behind fluid flow into a syrinx, apparently against a pressure gradient between the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space (SAS). Recently, the synchronization between CSF flow and the cardiac cycle has been(More)
OBJECT The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in association with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is unclear. Studies of patients with CM-I have shown alterations in the CSF velocity profile using cardiac-gated cine phase-contrast MRI, and computational simulations have demonstrated that temporal features of the CSF pulse could contribute to syrinx development(More)
Knowledge of the biomechanical properties of central nervous system (CNS) tissues is important for understanding mechanisms and thresholds for injury, and aiding development of computer or surrogate models of these tissues. Many investigations have been conducted to estimate the properties of CNS tissues including under shear, compressive and tensile(More)