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The roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host inflammatory response to infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis have not been elucidated. We examined production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in wild-type TLR2 knockout (KO), and TLR4 KO murine peritoneal macrophages infected with the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. Furthermore, we(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis survives within host cells by inhibiting fusion between Chlamydia vacuoles and lysosomes. We show here that treatment of infected macrophages with ATP leads to killing of chlamydiae through ligation of the purinergic receptor, P2X(7)R. Chlamydial killing required phospholipase D (PLD) activation, as PLD inhibition led to rescue of(More)
We have investigated the role of different domains of a salivary basic proline-rich protein in intracellular transport and sorting of proline-rich proteins to the secretory granules. We have cloned a full-length cDNA of a basic proline-rich protein from the rat parotid and expressed it in AtT-20 cells. It was correctly sorted into secretory granules as(More)
When expressed in pituitary AtT-20 cells, parotid proline-rich proteins enter the regulated pathway. Because the short N-terminal domain of a basic proline-rich protein is necessary for efficient export from the ER, it has not been possible to evaluate the role of this polypeptide segment as a sorting signal for regulated secretion. We now show that(More)
Extracellular nucleotides interact with purinergic receptors, which regulate ion transport in a variety of epithelia. With the use of two different human epithelial carcinoma cell lines (HCT8 and Caco-2), we have shown by RT-PCR that the cells express mRNA for P2X1, P2X3, P2X4, P2X5, P2X6, P2X7, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, and P2Y12 receptors. Protein(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease by transferring oncogenic, single-stranded DNA (T strand), covalently attached to the VirD2 protein, across the bacterial envelope into plant cells where its expression results in tumor formation. The single-stranded DNA binding protein VirE2 is also transferred into the plant cell, though the location at(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA from the resident 'tumour-inducing' (Ti) plasmid into plant cells, where it can be stably integrated into the plant genome, ultimately resulting in crown gall tumour formation. The mobilized DNA molecule is a single-stranded intermediate with VirD2 covalently bound to its 5' end. Successful transport of the(More)
IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a chemokine important in the attraction of T cells, which are essential for resolution of chlamydial genital tract infection. During infections with Gram-negative bacteria, the IP-10 response mediated through type I IFNs usually occurs as a result of TLR4 stimulation by bacterial LPS. However, we found that levels(More)
Infections by Chlamydia are followed by a strong inflammatory response, which is necessary to eliminate the infection, but at the same time is responsible for the pathology of infection. Resistance of infected cells against apoptosis induced by external ligands, together with the effects of IFNgamma secreted during infection, would be expected to contribute(More)
The nature of the substratum profoundly influences the growth and function of epithelia in tissue culture. “Mammospheres”, hollow spherical structures, develop when epithelial clusters are plated on a biomatrix derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour (EHS matrix). Morphologic examination of mammosphere development demonstrates that(More)