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Results from recent studies of retrograde amnesia following damage to the hippocampal complex of human and non-human subjects have shown that retrograde amnesia is extensive and can encompass much of a subject's lifetime; the degree of loss may depend upon the type of memory assessed. These and other findings suggest that the hippocampal formation and(More)
We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and(More)
Spatial memory tasks, performance of which is known to be sensitive to hippocampal lesions in the rat, or to medial temporal lesions in the human, were administered in order to investigate the effects of selective damage to medial temporal lobe structures of the human brain. The patients had undergone thermo-coagulation with a single electrode along the(More)
The hippocampus may have a time-limited role in memory, being needed only until information is permanently stored elsewhere, or this region may permanently represent long-term allocentric spatial information or cognitive maps in memory. To test these ideas, we investigated remote spatial memory in K.C., a patient with bilateral hippocampal lesions and(More)
Hippocampal-neocortical interactions in memory have typically been characterized within the "standard model" of memory consolidation. In this view, memory storage initially requires hippocampal linking of dispersed neocortical storage sites, but over time this need dissipates, and the hippocampal component is rendered unnecessary. This change in function(More)
Recent demonstrations of "reconsolidation" suggest that memories can be modified when they are reactivated. Reconsolidation has been observed in human procedural memory and in implicit memory in infants. This study asks whether episodic memory undergoes reconsolidation. College students learned a list of objects on Day 1. On Day 2, they received a reminder(More)
It has been argued that the role of the hippocampus in memory is time-limited: during a period of memory consolidation, other brain regions such as the neocortex are said to acquire the ability to support memory retention and retrieval on their own. An alternative view is that retention and retrieval of memory for autobiographical episodes depend on the(More)
Investigation of the hippocampus has historically focused on computations within the trisynaptic circuit. However, discovery of important anatomical and functional variability along its long axis has inspired recent proposals of long-axis functional specialization in both the animal and human literatures. Here, we review and evaluate these proposals. We(More)
Understanding the dynamics of memory change is one of the current challenges facing cognitive neuroscience. Recent animal work on memory reconsolidation shows that memories can be altered long after acquisition. When reactivated, memories can be modified and require a restabilization (reconsolidation) process. We recently extended this finding to human(More)
The processes and mechanisms implicated in retention and retrieval of memories as they age is an enduring problem in cognitive neuroscience. Research from lesion and functional neuroimaging studies on remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory in humans is crucial for evaluating three theories of hippocampal and/or medial temporal lobe-neocortical(More)