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BACKGROUND Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide that has been shown to improve cachexia in heart failure and cancer and to ameliorate the hemodynamic and metabolic disturbances in septic shock. Because cytokine-induced inflammation is critical in these pathological states and because the growth hormone secretagogue receptor has been(More)
Adipose tissue depots originate from distinct precursor cells, are functionally diverse, and modulate disease processes in a depot-specific manner. However, the functional properties of perivascular adipocytes, and their influence on disease of the blood vessel wall, remain to be determined. We show that human coronary perivascular adipocytes exhibit a(More)
Statins, a group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are widely used in clinical practice for their efficacy in producing significant reductions in plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and in reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, several large clinical trials have suggested that the(More)
Oxidized lipids, such as 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 13-HPODE, a constituent of oxidized low-density lipoproteins, can induce cytotoxicity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), which may facilitate plaque destabilization and/or rupture. 13-HPODE-induced cytotoxicity has been(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear hormone receptors that play central roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and the immune/inflammatory response. Growing evidence indicates that changes in expression and activation of PPARs likely modulate conditions as diverse as diabetes,(More)
Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) is a vasoactive phospholipid present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein. We used a coculture model of the vascular wall to study its interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Lyso-PC was taken up readily by SMC and gradually acylated to phosphatidylcholine. Low concentrations (< or = 1(More)
Enkephalins are opioid peptides that are found at high levels in the brain and endocrine tissues. Studies have shown that enkephalins play an important role in behavior, pain, cardiac function, cellular growth, immunity, and ischemic tolerance. Our global hypothesis is that enkephalins are released from non-neuronal tissues in response to brief ischemia or(More)
14,15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), a cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase product of arachidonic acid (AA), reduced PGE2 formation by 40-75% in porcine aortic and murine brain microvascular smooth muscle cells. The inhibition was reversed 6-10 h after removal of 14,15-EET from the medium and was regioisomeric specific; 8,9-EET produced a smaller effect, whereas(More)
OBJECTIVE Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) expands during obesity, is highly inflamed, and correlates with coronary plaque burden and increased cardiovascular risk. We tested the hypothesis that PVAT contributes to the vascular response to wire injury and investigated the underlying mechanisms. APPROACH AND RESULTS We transplanted thoracic aortic PVAT(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, causes acute pneumonia in patients with hospital-acquired infections and is commonly associated with chronic lung disease in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of P. aeruginosa are mediated in part by virulence factors secreted by the(More)