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[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 39(6) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition (see record 2013-27860-001). In the article there were omissions in Figure 1. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The word frequency paradox refers to the finding that low frequency words are better(More)
The human memory system is remarkable in its capacity to focus its search on items learned in a given context. This capacity can be so precise that many leading models of human memory assume that only those items learned in the context of a recently studied list compete for recall. We sought to extend the explanatory scope of these models to include not(More)
According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer (1978)(More)
According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect(More)
My work examines how the brain acquires, stores, and retrieves information. I first present a theoretical model of the retina, and use the model to explore how the design of sensory systems affects our ability to make inferences about the physical world. I next present three analyses of electrocorticographic recordings taken as human neurosurgical patients(More)
The well-known recency effect in immediate free recall reverses when subjects attempt to recall items studied and tested on a series of prior lists. In this final free recall task, terminal list items are remembered less well than mid-list items (Craik, 1970). Because dual-store memory models naturally predict this negative-recency effect, it has long been(More)
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