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Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, stress-responsive genetic elements ubiquitous in microbial genomes, are unusually abundant in the major human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Why M. tuberculosis has so many TA systems and what role they play in the unique biology of the pathogen is unknown. To address these questions, we have taken a comprehensive(More)
Treatment of tuberculosis, a complex granulomatous disease, requires long-term multidrug therapy to overcome tolerance, an epigenetic drug resistance that is widely attributed to nonreplicating bacterial subpopulations. Here, we deploy Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae for in vivo characterization of antitubercular drug activity and tolerance.(More)
A fundamental problem in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is the long duration of therapy required for cure. The recalcitrance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to eradication is thought to result from its achieving a nonreplicating (dormant) state in the host. Because virtually all classes of antibiotics require bacterial replication for their action,(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus secrete virulence factors via type VII protein secretion (T7S), a system that intriguingly requires all of its secretion substrates for activity. To gain insights into T7S function, we used structural approaches to guide studies of the putative translocase EccC, a unique enzyme with three ATPase domains,(More)
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