Lynn E. Bretscher

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A polypeptide chain can adopt many conformations. Yet, the sequence of its amino acid residues directs folding to a particular native state.1 The loss of conformational entropy associated with folding destabilizes the native state. This destabilization is overcome by the hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonds, other noncovalent interactions, and disulfide(More)
Isoform-specific nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors may prove clinically useful in reducing the pathophysiological effects associated with increased neuronal NOS (nNOS) or inducible NOS (iNOS) activity in a variety of neurological and inflammatory disorders. Analogs of the NOS substrate L-arginine are pharmacologically attractive inhibitors because of(More)
BACKGROUND Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals. Each polypeptide chain of collagen is composed of repeats of the sequence: Gly-X-Y, where X and Y are often L-proline (Pro) and 4(R)-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp) residues, respectively. These chains are wound into tight triple helices of great stability. The hydroxyl group of Hyp residues contributes(More)
Collagen-like peptides of the type (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) fold into stable triple helices. An electron-withdrawing substituent at the H(gamma)(3) ring position of the second proline residue stabilizes these triple helices. The aim of this study was to reveal the structural and energetic origins of this effect. The approach was to obtain experimental NMR data on(More)
Each polypeptide chain of collagen is composed of repeats of the amino-acid sequence X–Y–Gly, where Gly represents glycine and X and Y are often proline (Pro) or 4(R)-hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues, respectively. The thermal stability of triplehelical collagen is enhanced by the hydroxyl group on the pyrrolidine ring of Hyp residues. It is thought that this(More)
Onconase, a homolog of ribonuclease A (RNase A) with low ribonucleolytic activity, is cytotoxic and has efficacy as a cancer chemotherapeutic. Here variants of RNase A were used to probe the interplay between ribonucleolytic activity and evasion of the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor protein (RI) in the cytotoxicity of ribonucleases. K41R/G88R RNase A is a(More)
Collagen is an integral part of many types of connective tissue in animals, especially skin, bones, cartilage, and basement membranes. A fibrous protein, collagen has a triple-helical structure, which is comprised of strands with a repeating Xaa-Yaa-Gly sequence. l-Proline (Pro) and 4(R)-hydroxy-l-proline (4-Hyp) residues occur most often in the Xaa and Yaa(More)
The covalent addition of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (L-Ara4N) groups to lipid A, which resides in the outer membranes of bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, is the final step in the polymyxin-resistance pathway in these organisms. This modification is catalyzed by the inner membrane protein 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose transferase(More)
BACKGROUND Fires, explosions, and extreme heat production may occur when sevoflurane reacts with desiccated barium hydroxide lime. The identity of the flammable gas has not previously been published, although carbon monoxide, methanol, formaldehyde, and methyl formate have been identified in low quantities. METHODS The authors reacted sevoflurane with(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria, is composed of a polysaccharide chain attached to a lipid A base that contains a disaccharide headgroup with two negative phosphate groups and at least four acyl chains. Lipid A is an essential component of the membranes of a large number of bacteria and is also a(More)