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The biological neural networks (BNNs) of the gravity-sensing endorgans of the inner ear, the vestibular maculas, appear to be organized in ways more complex than the parallel distributed processing (PDP) systems currently under study in the artificial neural network (ANN) field. The organization and synaptic interactions of the processing elements (PEs)(More)
The stabilization of hydrogen peroxide was investigated as a basis for enhancing its downgradient transport and contact with contaminants during catalyzed H(2)O(2) propagations (CHP) in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Stabilization of hydrogen peroxide was investigated in slurries containing four characterized subsurface solids using phytate, citrate, and(More)
Computer-assisted reconstructions of small parts of the macular neural network show how the nerve terminals and receptive fields are organized in 3-dimensional space. This biological neural network is anatomically organized for parallel distributed processing of information. Processing appears to be more complex than in computer-based neural networks,(More)
Computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstructions of macular receptive fields and of their linkages into a neural network have revealed new information about macular functional organization. Both type I and type II hair cells are included in the receptive fields. The fields are rounded, oblong, or elongated, but gradations between categories are common. Cell(More)
Cupric ion-ferricyanide labeling methods and related ferrocyanide-stained tissues were used to locate and characterize, at the ultrastructural level, presumptive impulse initiation zones in the three types of vestibular macular nerve fibers. Large-diameter, M-type vestibular nerve fibers terminate in a calyx at the heminode, and labeling is coextensive with(More)
Sorption of hydrophobic contaminants to soils and subsurface solids is a significant limitation for the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remediation of contaminated sites. A recently developed ISCO reagent, activated persulfate, was investigated for its potential to provide enhanced treatment of sorbed contaminants, a phenomenon that has previously been(More)
While artificial neural networks are being applied to solving problems in signal processing and other domains, much remains to be discovered about how even the simpler biological neural networks function. Studying simpler examples of natural systems promises to advance our understanding of principles of organization of neural tissue wherever it occurs. It(More)