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Standard cell culture systems impose environmental oxygen (O(2)) levels of 20%, whereas actual tissue O(2) levels in both developing and adult brain are an order of magnitude lower. To address whether proliferation and differentiation of CNS precursors in vitro are influenced by the O(2) environment, we analyzed embryonic day 12 rat mesencephalic precursor(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have diverse and sometimes paradoxical effects during embryonic development. To determine the mechanisms underlying BMP actions, we analyzed the expression and function of two BMP receptors, BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB, in neural precursor cells in vitro and in vivo. Neural precursor cells always express Bmpr-1a, but Bmpr-1b is(More)
In vitro expansion of central nervous system (CNS) precursors might overcome the limited availability of dopaminergic neurons in transplantation for Parkinson's disease, but generating dopaminergic neurons from in vitro dividing precursors has proven difficult. Here a three-dimensional cell differentiation system was used to convert precursor cells derived(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and(More)
Multipotential stem cells have been isolated from the developing and adult CNS. Similar identified factors control the differentiation of these cells. A striking example is the instructive action of CNTF/LIF activating the JAK/STAT pathway to induce astrocytic differentiation in both fetal and adult CNS stem cells. Here we show that E12 cortical precursors(More)
CNS precursors derived from E12 rat mesencephalon proliferate in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor and differentiate in vitro into functional dopaminergic neurons, which upon transplantation alleviate behavioral symptoms in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Here we show that the efficiency of dopaminergic differentiation decreases in the(More)
The use of in vitro expanded human CNS precursors has the potential to overcome some of the ethical, logistic and technical problems of fetal tissue transplantation in Parkinson disease. Cultured rat mesencephalic precursors proliferate in response to bFGF and upon mitogen withdrawal, differentiate into functional dopamine neurons that alleviate motor(More)
  • L Studer
  • 2001
Primary cultures of nigral tissue are widely used as a model system to assay effects of trophic and toxic agents on dopaminergic neurons. Cultured dopaminergic neurons have been successfully transplanted in animals and led to behavioral improvement in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Cell cultures have also been used to study the development of(More)
Fluid resuscitation is the foundation of management in burn patients and is the topic of considerable research. One adjunct in burn resuscitation is continuous, high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) infusion, which may reduce fluid requirements and thus decrease the risk for over resuscitation. Research in preclinical studies and clinical trials has shown(More)
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