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Members of the glucan synthase-like (GSL) family are believed to be involved in synthesis of the cell-wall component callose in specialized locations throughout the plant. We identified two members of the Arabidopsis GSL gene family, GSL8 and GSL10, that are independently required for male gametophyte development and plant growth. Analysis of gsl8 and gsl10(More)
The unique double fertilisation mechanism in flowering plants depends upon a pair of functional sperm cells. During male gametogenesis, each haploid microspore undergoes an asymmetric division to produce a large, non-germline vegetative cell and a single germ cell that divides once to produce the sperm cell pair. Despite the importance of sperm cells in(More)
Male germline development in angiosperms produces the pair of sperm cells required for double fertilization. A key regulator of this process in Arabidopsis thaliana is the male germline-specific transcription factor DUO POLLEN1 (DUO1) that coordinates germ cell division and gamete specification. Here, we uncover the role of DUO3, a nuclear protein that has(More)
Centromeric constitutive heterochromatin is marked by DNA methylation and dimethylated histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9me2) in Arabidopsis. RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a process that uses 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to induce de novo methylation to its homologous DNA sequences. Despite the presence of centromeric 24-nt siRNAs,(More)
Balanced maternal and paternal genome contributions are a requirement for successful seed development. Unbalanced contributions often cause seed abortion, a phenomenon that has been termed "triploid block." Misregulation of imprinted regulatory genes has been proposed to be the underlying cause for abnormalities in growth and structure of the endosperm in(More)
Pollen grains represent the highly reduced haploid male gametophyte generation in flowering plants, consisting of just two or three cells when released from the anthers. Their role is to deliver twin sperm cells to the embryo sac to undergo fusion with the egg and central cell. This double fertilization event along with the functional specialization of the(More)
The male germline in flowering plants arises through asymmetric division of a haploid microspore. The resulting germ cell undergoes mitotic division and specialization to produce the two sperm cells required for double fertilization. The male germline-specific R2R3 MYB transcription factor DUO1 POLLEN1 (DUO1) plays an essential role in sperm cell(More)
Cell walls are dynamic structures that represent key determinants of overall plant form, plant growth and development, and the responses of plants to environmental and pathogen-induced stresses. Walls play centrally important roles in the quality and processing of plant-based foods for both human and animal consumption, and in the production of fibres(More)
Flowering plants possess a unique reproductive strategy, involving double fertilization by twin sperm cells. Unlike animal germ lines, the male germ cell lineage in plants only forms after meiosis and involves asymmetric division of haploid microspores, to produce a large, non-germline vegetative cell and a germ cell that undergoes one further division to(More)
Polyploids, organisms with more than two sets of chromosomes, are widespread in flowering plants, including many important crop species. Increases in ploidy level are believed to arise commonly through the production of gametes that have not had their ploidy level reduced during meiosis. Although there have been cytological descriptions of unreduced gamete(More)