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Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive childhood form of motor neuron disease. Previous studies have highlighted nerve- and muscle-specific events in SMA, including atrophy of muscle fibres and post-synaptic motor endplates, loss of lower motor neuron cell bodies and denervation of neuromuscular junctions caused by loss of(More)
Amid the great diversity of neurodegenerative conditions, there is a growing body of evidence that non-somatic (that is, synaptic and distal axonal) compartments of neurones are early and important subcellular sites of pathological change. In this review we discuss experimental data from human patients, animal models and in vitro systems showing that(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy is a severe motor neuron disease caused by inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene leading to reduced levels of full-length functional SMN protein. SMN is a critical mediator of spliceosomal protein assembly, and complete loss or drastic reduction in protein leads to loss of cell viability. However, the reason for selective motor(More)
Reduced expression of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene causes the childhood motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Low levels of ubiquitously expressed SMN protein result in the degeneration of lower motor neurons, but it remains unclear whether other regions of the nervous system are also affected. Here we show that reduced levels of SMN(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant death. It is caused by mutations/deletions of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and is typified by the loss of spinal cord motor neurons, muscular atrophy, and in severe cases, death. The SMN protein is ubiquitously expressed and various cellular- and tissue-specific(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating childhood motor neuron disease caused by mutations and deletions within the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Although other tissues may be involved, motor neurons remain primary pathological targets, with loss of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) representing an early and significant event in pathogenesis.(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by the progressive loss of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with beneficial effects in spinal muscular atrophy mouse models that carry the human SMN2 transgene. It is currently unclear whether TSA specifically(More)
The childhood motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from reduced expression of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene. Previous studies using in vitro model systems and lower organisms have suggested that low levels of Smn protein disrupt prenatal developmental processes in lower motor neurons, influencing neuronal outgrowth, axon(More)
"Two-cysteine" peroxiredoxins are antioxidant enzymes that exert a cytoprotective effect in many models of oxidative stress. However, under highly oxidizing conditions they can be inactivated through hyperoxidation of their peroxidatic active site cysteine residue. Sulfiredoxin can reverse this hyperoxidation, thus reactivating peroxiredoxins. Here we(More)
Low levels of full-length survival motor neuron (SMN) protein cause the motor neuron disease, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although motor neurons undoubtedly contribute directly to SMA pathogenesis, the role of muscle is less clear. We demonstrate significant disruption to the molecular composition of skeletal muscle in pre-symptomatic severe SMA mice, in(More)