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Carbon black and quartz are relatively inert solid particulate materials that are carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Quartz is a human carcinogen, whereas data on carbon black are contradictory, and there are few data on mammalian mutagenesis. We determined the mutant frequency following eight repeated 72-hr incubations with 75 mug/ml carbon black (Printex(More)
The lacZ transgenic mouse (Muta mouse) model was used to examine the timing of ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutations in germ cells. The spectrum of mutations was also determined. Animals received five daily treatments with ENU at 50 mg/kg and were sampled at times up to 55 days after treatment. In mixed germ-cell populations isolated from seminiferous(More)
We have isolated and characterized a stable epithelial cell line from Muta Mouse lung that is a suitable complement to the in vivo assay system. The cells are contact inhibited, forming a flat monolayer, and retain several epithelial/pulmonary characteristics. The genome is stable across more than 50 generations, with a modal chromosome number of 78.(More)
In order to help establish criteria for optimizing protocols for in vivo mutation studies, lacZ transgenic mice (Muta mouse) were treated with five consecutive daily doses of ethylnitrosourea (50 mg/kg), sampled at times up to 55 days after treatment, and mutant frequencies and DNA sequences determined for liver and bone marrow. In the bone marrow, the(More)
lacZ gene mutations in the transgenic Muta Mmouse can be detected by two different selection systems. While mutant frequencies recovered by phenyl-beta-D-galactoside (P-gal) selection are comparable with those obtained using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) as substrate for beta-galactosidase, there may still be differences at the(More)
There is ongoing concern that an assay for germ cell effects in female animals is not available. While transgenic mutation detection systems provide unprecedented access to numerous rodent tissues, studies on the induction of gene mutations in oocytes are still not possible because sufficient numbers of cells cannot be harvested. However, following(More)
De novo mutations arise mostly in the male germline and may contribute to adverse health outcomes in subsequent generations. Traditional methods for assessing the induction of germ cell mutations require the use of large numbers of animals, making them impractical. As such, germ cell mutagenicity is rarely assessed during chemical testing and risk(More)
We have developed an in vitro mutation assay using primary hepatocytes from the transgenic MutaMouse. Primary hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step perfusion method with purification by Percoll, cultured, and treated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl- imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-nitrobenzoanthrone (3-NBA), and cigarette smoke(More)
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used industrial solvent employed mainly for degreasing and cold-cleaning metal parts. It is also used for dry cleaning, and in the production of a number of chemical products. It has been shown to induce liver and lung tumors in rodents, and have a variety of positive and negative results using in vitro and in vivo(More)
Transgenic mouse models permit the confirmation of in vitro mutagenicity in vivo without the constraints in the selection of tissues imposed by other in vivo assays. This feature is of particular importance in the determination of mutagenicity in the target tissues of carcinogens, especially those that are in vitro mutagens. Such information is critical in(More)