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THE D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are critical governors of the cell-cycle clock apparatus during the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle. These three D-type cyclins are expressed in overlapping, apparently redundant fashion in the proliferating tissues. To investigate why mammalian cells need three distinct D-type cyclins, we have generated mice bearing(More)
Development of outbred CF1 mouse zygotes in vitro was studied in a chemically defined, protein-free medium both with and without amino acids. The addition of amino acids to protein-free potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM) had little effect on the proportion of embryos that developed at least to the zona-enclosed blastocyst stage. In contrast, amino(More)
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor and a target of viral oncoproteins. To determine the biological role of YY1 in mammalian development, we generated mice deficient for YY1 by gene targeting. Homozygosity for the mutated YY1 allele results in embryonic lethality in the mouse. YY1 mutants undergo implantation and induce uterine(More)
The addition of amino acids to a modified simplex optimized medium (mKSOM) did not increase the percentage of blastocysts that develop from CF1 mouse ova fertilized in vitro. In contrast, the percentage of blastocysts that began to hatch and the number of cells in these blastocysts, particularly in the inner cell mass, was increased. The added amino acids(More)
The Wt1 gene, originally identified as a tumor suppressor gene associated with Wilms' tumors, encodes a zinc finger containing transcription factor expressed during gonadal and kidney development. Although Wt1 appears to be required for gonadal and kidney development, no reproductive defects were observed in outbred females heterozygous for a targeted(More)
Oocyte maturation invokes complex signaling pathways to achieve cytoplasmic and nuclear competencies for fertilization and development. The Src-family kinases FYN, YES and SRC are expressed in mammalian oocytes but their function during oocyte maturation remains an open question. Using chemical inhibitor, siRNA knockdown, and gene deletion strategies the(More)
The ribonuclease III endonuclease, Dicer1 (also known as Dicer), is essential for the synthesis of the 19-25 nucleotide noncoding RNAs known as micro-RNAs (miRNAs). These miRNAs associate with the RNA-induced silencing complex to regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with 3'untranslated regions of complementary mRNA targets.(More)
A factorial experimental design was used to examine the effects of 16 combinations of four concentrations of glucose (0.20, 0.60, 1.8, 5.4 mmol/l) and four concentrations of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH(2)PO(4); 0.05, 0.15, 0.45, 1.35 mmol/l) on the development in vitro of outbred CF1 mouse zygotes. Three responses were measured: (i) the number of(More)
To ask whether distinct kinase signaling pathways mediate cytoplasmic or nuclear maturation of mouse oocytes and if in vitro maturation influences the distribution and timing of these phosphorylation events. Mouse cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured under conditions known to influence oocyte quality (basal or supplemented media) and assayed with(More)
The effect of replacing bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a simple defined medium (KSOM) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or amino acids on the percentages of mouse zygotes that develop to at least the blastocyst stage and that hatch at least partially or completely is reported. Blastocysts could form when BSA was replaced with only PVA, but at a moderately(More)