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Malignant astrocytic gliomas such as glioblastoma are the most common and lethal intracranial tumors. These cancers exhibit a relentless malignant progression characterized by widespread invasion throughout the brain, resistance to traditional and newer targeted therapeutic approaches, destruction of normal brain tissue, and certain death. The recent(More)
We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA(More)
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of male cancer deaths in the United States. However, the full range of prostate cancer genomic alterations is incompletely characterized. Here we present the complete sequence of seven primary human prostate cancers and their paired normal counterparts. Several tumours contained complex chains of balanced(More)
Here we describe the comprehensive gene expression profiles of each cell type composing normal breast tissue and in situ and invasive breast carcinomas using serial analysis of gene expression. Based on these data, we determined that extensive gene expression changes occur in all cell types during cancer progression and that a significant fraction of(More)
All cancers carry somatic mutations. A subset of these somatic alterations, termed driver mutations, confer selective growth advantage and are implicated in cancer development, whereas the remainder are passengers. Here we have sequenced the genomes of a malignant melanoma and a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same person, providing the first(More)
Tumor maintenance relies on continued activity of driver oncogenes, although their rate-limiting role is highly context dependent. Oncogenic Kras mutation is the signature event in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), serving a critical role in tumor initiation. Here, an inducible Kras(G12D)-driven PDAC mouse model establishes that advanced PDAC remains(More)
The cell cycle inhibitor p16INK4a is inactivated in many human tumors and in families with hereditary melanoma and pancreatic cancer. Tumor-associated alterations in the INK4a locus may also affect the overlapping gene encoding p19ARF and the adjacent gene encoding p15I1NK4b, both negative regulators of cell proliferation. We report the phenotype of mice(More)
The INK4a gene encodes two distinct growth inhibitors--the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16Ink4a, which is a component of the Rb pathway, and the tumor suppressor p19Arf, which has been functionally linked to p53. Here we show that p19Arf potently suppresses oncogenic transformation in primary cells and that this function is abrogated when p53 is(More)
Melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) intimately interact with epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) in the hair follicle bulge and secondary hair germ (sHG). Together, they undergo activation and differentiation to regenerate pigmented hair. However, the mechanisms behind this coordinated stem cell behavior have not been elucidated. Here, we identified Wnt signaling as a(More)
Documented interactions among members of the Myc superfamily support a yin-yang model for the regulation of Myc-responsive genes in which transactivation-competent Myc-Max heterodimers are opposed by repressive Mxi1-Max or Mad-Max complexes. Analysis of mouse mxi1 has led to the identification of two mxi1 transcript forms possessing open reading frames that(More)