Lyle R. McKinnon

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Current research on plasticity has altered the over simplistic view of greater capacity in the developing brain after injury. In another paper in this issue, Dennis provides a model to elucidate the complexity of the multiple factors that influence recovery after brain injury in children. The authors present a brief summary of findings from their(More)
Quantifying the costs and benefits of migration distance is critical to understanding the evolution of long-distance migration. In migratory birds, life history theory predicts that the potential survival costs of migrating longer distances should be balanced by benefits to lifetime reproductive success, yet quantification of these reproductive benefits in(More)
BACKGROUND Subclinical endotoxemia has been reported in HIV-1 infected persons and may drive systemic immune activation and pathogenesis. Proinflammatory responsiveness to endotoxin (LPS) is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We therefore examined the association between plasma LPS levels, HIV RNA, and TLR4 expression and cytokine responses in the(More)
BACKGROUND Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN) may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells(More)
Several candidate HIV vaccines aim to induce virus-specific cellular immunity particularly in the genital tract, typically the initial site of HIV acquisition. However, standardized and sensitive methods for evaluating HIV-specific immune responses at the genital level are lacking. Therefore we evaluated real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a potential(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection reconstitutes the immune system and improves survival. However, the rate and extent of CD4+ T cell recovery varies widely. We assessed the impact of several factors on immune reconstitution in a large Kenyan cohort. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS HIV-infected female sex workers from a longitudinal(More)
Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration(More)
HIV-1 is grouped phylogenetically into clades, which may impact rates of HIV-1 disease progression. Clade D infection in particular has been shown to be more pathogenic. Here we confirm in a Nairobi-based prospective female sex worker cohort (1985-2004) that Clade D (n = 54) is associated with a more rapid CD4 decline than clade A1 (n = 150, 20.6% vs 13.4%(More)
Several countries with generalized, high-prevalence HIV epidemics, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, have experienced rapid declines in transmission. These HIV epidemics, often with rapid onsets, have generally been attributed to a combination of factors related to high-risk sexual behavior. The subsequent declines in these countries began prior to widespread(More)