Lyle McKinnon

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Both activated and resting CD4(+) T cells in mucosal tissues play important roles in the earliest phases of infection after sexual transmission of HIV-1, a process that is inefficient. HIV-1 gp120 binds to integrin alpha(4)beta(7) (alpha(4)beta(7)), the gut mucosal homing receptor. We find that alpha(4)beta(7)(high) CD4(+) T cells are more susceptible to(More)
OBJECTIVES Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling. METHODS Two hundred HIV-infected and uninfected women from a Kenya cohort participated in the studies. TLR1 to TLR10 messenger(More)
BACKGROUND Subclinical endotoxemia has been reported in HIV-1 infected persons and may drive systemic immune activation and pathogenesis. Proinflammatory responsiveness to endotoxin (LPS) is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We therefore examined the association between plasma LPS levels, HIV RNA, and TLR4 expression and cytokine responses in the(More)
The HIV pandemic disproportionately affects women, with most infections acquired through receptive vaginal sex. Although the target cells by which HIV establishes infection in the female genital tract remain poorly defined, it is known that immune activation results in CD4(+) T cells with enhanced susceptibility, as does expression of the mucosal integrin(More)
OBJECTIVES Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission, yet there remains limited data in the African context, and for men who sell sex to men (MSM SW) in particular. METHODS We enrolled 507 male sex workers in a Nairobi-based prospective cohort study during 2009-2012. All participants were offered HIV/STI(More)
Mucosal Th17 cells maintain the gut epithelial barrier and prevent invasion by luminal bacteria through a delicate balance of immunosuppressive and proinflammatory functions. HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 depletion, microbial translocation, and immune activation. Therefore, we assessed the function of blood and sigmoid Th17 cells during(More)
BACKGROUND Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection reconstitutes the immune system and improves survival. However, the rate and extent of CD4+ T cell recovery varies widely. We assessed the impact of several factors on immune reconstitution in a large Kenyan cohort. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS HIV-infected female sex workers from a longitudinal(More)
OBJECTIVES Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) cause female genital tract inflammation. This inflammation, which is often present in the absence of symptoms, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. We aimed to evaluate genital cytokine profiles and the degree of inflammation associated with common STIs(More)
Antiretroviral drug therapy (ART) effectively suppresses replication of both the immunodeficiency viruses, human (HIV) and simian (SIV); however, virus rebounds soon after ART is withdrawn. SIV-infected monkeys were treated with a 90-day course of ART initiated at 5 weeks post infection followed at 9 weeks post infection by infusions of a primatized(More)