Lyle McKinnon

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BACKGROUND Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN) may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells(More)
The HIV pandemic disproportionately affects women, with most infections acquired through receptive vaginal sex. Although the target cells by which HIV establishes infection in the female genital tract remain poorly defined, it is known that immune activation results in CD4(+) T cells with enhanced susceptibility, as does expression of the mucosal integrin(More)
Mucosal Th17 cells maintain the gut epithelial barrier and prevent invasion by luminal bacteria through a delicate balance of immunosuppressive and proinflammatory functions. HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 depletion, microbial translocation, and immune activation. Therefore, we assessed the function of blood and sigmoid Th17 cells during(More)
BACKGROUND Subclinical endotoxemia has been reported in HIV-1 infected persons and may drive systemic immune activation and pathogenesis. Proinflammatory responsiveness to endotoxin (LPS) is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We therefore examined the association between plasma LPS levels, HIV RNA, and TLR4 expression and cytokine responses in the(More)
BACKGROUND Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to(More)
Antiretroviral drug therapy (ART) effectively suppresses replication of both the immunodeficiency viruses, human (HIV) and simian (SIV); however, virus rebounds soon after ART is withdrawn. SIV-infected monkeys were treated with a 90-day course of ART initiated at 5 weeks post infection followed at 9 weeks post infection by infusions of a primatized(More)
Several candidate HIV vaccines aim to induce virus-specific cellular immunity particularly in the genital tract, typically the initial site of HIV acquisition. However, standardized and sensitive methods for evaluating HIV-specific immune responses at the genital level are lacking. Therefore we evaluated real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a potential(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection reconstitutes the immune system and improves survival. However, the rate and extent of CD4+ T cell recovery varies widely. We assessed the impact of several factors on immune reconstitution in a large Kenyan cohort. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS HIV-infected female sex workers from a longitudinal(More)
BACKGROUND Whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype B-infected individuals generally progress to AIDS within 8-10 years, limited data exist for other clades, especially from Africa. We investigated rates of HIV disease progression of clade C-infected South African women. METHODS Prospective seroincidence cohorts in KwaZulu-Natal were assessed(More)
Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration(More)