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Most hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying seizure activity in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are based on alterations in synaptic transmission and glial dysfunction. However, neurons may also communicate by extrasynaptic transmission, which was recently found to affect epileptiform activity under experimental conditions and which is mediated by(More)
To understand the structural alterations that underlie early and late changes in hippocampal diffusivity after hypoxia/ischemia (H/I), the changes in apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC(W)) were studied in 8-week-old rats after H/I using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). In the hippocampal CA1 region, ADC(W) analyses were(More)
Brain edema accompanying ischemic or traumatic brain injuries, originates from a disruption of ionic/neurotransmitter homeostasis that leads to accumulation of K(+) and glutamate in the extracellular space. Their increased uptake, predominantly provided by astrocytes, is associated with water influx via aquaporin-4 (AQP4). As the removal of perivascular(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the primary cellular water channel in the brain and is abundantly expressed by astrocytes along the blood-brain barrier and brain-cerebrospinal fluid interfaces. Water transport via AQP4 contributes to the activity-dependent volume changes of the extracellular space (ECS), which affect extracellular solute concentrations and neuronal(More)
An essential component of the brain extracellular space is the extracellular matrix contributing to the spatial assembly of cells by binding cell-surface adhesion molecules, supporting cell migration, differentiation, and tissue development. The most interesting and complex functions of the central nervous system are the abilities to encode new information(More)
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Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) of the brain are recognized as a frequent cause of intractable epilepsy. To contribute to the current understanding of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in FCD, our study provides evidence that not only cellular alterations and synaptic transmission, but also changed diffusion properties of the extracellular space (ECS),(More)
[K(+)](e) increase accompanies many pathological states in the CNS and evokes changes in astrocyte morphology and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, leading to astrogliosis. Changes in the electrophysiological properties and volume regulation of astrocytes during the early stages of astrocytic activation were studied using the patch-clamp technique(More)
Bral1 is a link protein that stabilizes the binding between lecticans and hyaluronic acid and thus maintains the extracellular matrix assembly in the CNS. Bral1 is specifically located in the white matter around the nodes of Ranvier. Recent studies suggest its function in promoting saltatory neural conduction. This article reviews the current knowledge(More)
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) is an important diagnostic tool in Huntington disease (HD), a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. To clarify the nature of diffusivity changes in HD, we compared the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW ) acquired by DW-MR with extracellular space volume fraction α and tortuosity λ, measured by(More)