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Analysis of the early stages of avian B lymphocyte differentiation has been hampered by the low frequency of extra-bursal B lineage cells in sites of hematopoiesis. Consequently, little is known about B lineage precursors prior to their migration into the bursa of Fabricius. Colonization of the bursa typically occurs between about days 8 and 14 of embryonic(More)
The bursa of Fabricius represents the major site of B lymphocyte development in avian species. Although the vast majority of bursal lymphocytes express cell surface immunoglobulin (sIg), it is generally considered that the bursa does not represent a significant site of antigen-induced B cell maturation to Ig secretion. However, the question as to whether(More)
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors elevate cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP), and this elevation has been shown to inhibit inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Using TNF-alpha as a biomarker, we have developed transcription-based assays to examine inhibition of PDE4 activity in human and guinea pig whole blood.(More)
The molecular mechanism by which immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangement occurs is highly conserved between mammalian and avian species. However, in avian species, an equivalent to the mammalian pre-B cell, which has undergone Ig heavy-chain gene rearrangement and expresses mu heavy chains in the absence of Ig light-chain rearrangement, has not been(More)
The crystal structures of Flavobacterium heparinium chondroitin AC lyase (chondroitinase AC; EC 4.2.2.5) bound to dermatan sulfate hexasaccharide (DS(hexa)), tetrasaccharide (DS(tetra)), and hyaluronic acid tetrasaccharide (HA(tetra)) have been refined at 2.0, 2.0, and 2.1 A resolution, respectively. The structure of the Tyr234Phe mutant of AC lyase bound(More)
In this paper we describe the avian homolog of mammalian CD45. We show that this Ag is expressed on all leukocytes but not on erythroid cells or their immediate precursors. Immunoprecipitations demonstrated that B lineage cells from the bursa of Fabricius expressed a higher molecular mass variant (215 kDa) than did T lineage cells from the thymus (190 kDa),(More)
Flavobacterium heparinum (now Pedobacter heparinus) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium which can produce yellow pigments. It synthesizes five enzymes that degrade glycosoaminoglycan molecules. The study of this unique bacterium has been limited by the absence of a genetic manipulation system. In this paper, the construction of a conjugation/integration(More)
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