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OBJECTIVE In settings of high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis control and patient management are hindered by lack of accurate, rapid tuberculosis diagnostic tests that can be performed at point-of-care. The Determine TB LAM Ag (TB LAM) test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test for detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine. Our(More)
BACKGROUND Mortality in hospitalized, febrile patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is high due to HIV-infected, severely immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic co-infection, particularly disseminated tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcal disease. We sought to determine if a positive lateral flow assay (LFA) result for urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and(More)
UNLABELLED In sub-Saharan Africa, sepsis is an important cause of mortality. Optimal sepsis management including fluid resuscitation, early antibiotic administration, and patient monitoring is limited by lack of supplies and skilled health workers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether early, monitored sepsis management provided by a study medical officer can(More)
BACKGROUND Sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis lacks sensitivity in HIV-infected symptomatic patients and increases the likelihood that mycobacterial infections particularly disseminated TB will be missed; delays in diagnosis can be fatal. Given the duration for MTB growth in blood culture, clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia may(More)
BACKGROUND Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB suspects is unknown. DESIGN Study of comparative diagnostic(More)
BACKGROUND Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the other TB risk factors are poorly studied in Uganda. We aimed(More)
INTRODUCTION The existing diagnostic algorithms for sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) are complicated, time-consuming, and often difficult to implement. The decision to initiate TB treatment in resource-limited countries is often largely based on clinical predictors. We sought to determine the clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric TB treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The Xpert MTB/RIF test (GeneXpert) has recently been endorsed for use in resource-limited settings for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and drug resistant-tuberculosis. In resource-limited settings, GeneXpert has been used predominantly for research and there is little experience with its use in day-to-day management of patients. CASE SUMMARY We(More)
Background: When manifested as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteremia, disseminated MTB infection clinically mimics other serious blood stream infections often hindering early diagnosis and initiation of potentially life-saving anti-tuberculosis therapy. In a cohort of hospitalized HIV-infected Ugandan patients with severe sepsis, we report the(More)
BACKGROUND Light emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM) is an affordable, technology targeted for use in resource-limited settings and recommended for widespread roll-out by the World Health Organization (WHO). We sought to compare the operational performance of three LED FM methods compared to light microscopy in a cohort of HIV-positive(More)