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BACKGROUND The monitoring of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are treated with antiretroviral medications in resource-limited settings is typically performed by use of clinical and immunological criteria. The early identification of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure is critical to prevent morbidity, mortality, and(More)
INTRODUCTION Antiretroviral resistance leads to treatment failure and resistance transmission. Resistance data in western Kenya are limited. Collection of non-plasma analytes may provide additional resistance information. METHODS We assessed HIV diversity using the REGA tool, transmitted resistance by the WHO mutation list and acquired resistance upon(More)
OBJECTIVE Kenya, like many resource-constrained countries, has a single mycobacterial laboratory, centrally located in Nairobi, with capacity for drug-susceptibility testing (DST) - the gold standard in diagnosing drug-resistant tuberculosis. We describe and evaluate a novel operational design that attempts to overcome diagnostic delivery barriers. (More)
OBJECTIVE To classify the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in two different geographic settings in western Kenya using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology. DESIGN The prevalence of drug resistance was classified among treatment-naïve smear positive TB patients in two settings, one rural and one urban. These(More)
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