Lydia Hannah Gould

Learn More
PROBLEM/CONDITION Foodborne diseases cause an estimated 48 million illnesses each year in the United States, including 9.4 million caused by known pathogens. Foodborne disease outbreak surveillance provides valuable insights into the agents and foods that cause illness and the settings in which transmission occurs. CDC maintains a surveillance program for(More)
Shiga toxin--producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a leading cause of bacterial enteric infections in the United States. Prompt, accurate diagnosis of STEC infection is important because appropriate treatment early in the course of infection might decrease the risk for serious complications such as renal damage and improve overall patient outcome. In(More)
BACKGROUND Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a life-threatening illness usually caused by infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157). We evaluated the age-specific rate of HUS and death among persons with STEC O157 infection and the risk factors associated with developing HUS. METHODS STEC O157 infections and HUS cases were(More)
An outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) occurred in Kenya during November 2006 through March 2007. We characterized the magnitude of the outbreak through disease surveillance and serosurveys, and investigated contributing factors to enhance strategies for forecasting to prevent or minimize the impact of future outbreaks. Of 700 suspected cases, 392 met(More)
A large Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak occurred in Kenya from December 2006 to March 2007. We conducted a study to define risk factors associated with infection and severe disease. A total of 861 individuals from 424 households were enrolled. Two hundred and two participants (23%) had serologic evidence of acute RVF infection. Of these, 52 (26%) had(More)
Clostridium difficile infection is increasingly recognized as a cause of diarrhea in outpatients and persons with no apparent health care facility contacts. In contrast to C. difficile infection acquired in health care settings, few risk factors for development of community-associated C. difficile infection are known. Foodborne transmission of C. difficile(More)
From 1998 to 2008, 1229 foodborne outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus were reported in the United States; 39% were reported with a confirmed etiology. Vomiting was commonly reported in B. cereus (median, 75% of cases) and S. aureus outbreaks (median, 87%), but rarely in C. perfringens outbreaks (median,(More)
Lyme disease, caused by the tick-transmitted bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. We surveyed residents of three Connecticut health districts to evaluate the impact of intensive community-wide education programs on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors to prevent Lyme disease. Overall, 84% of(More)
West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as(More)
BACKGROUND Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of diarrhea and the major cause of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Non-O157 STEC infections are being recognized with greater frequency because of changing laboratory practices. METHODS Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) site staff conducted(More)