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In voltage-gated K(+) channels (Kv), membrane depolarization promotes a structural reorganization of each of the four voltage sensor domains surrounding the conducting pore, inducing its opening. Although the crystal structure of Kv1.2 provided the first atomic resolution view of a eukaryotic Kv channel, several components of the voltage sensors remain(More)
An approach combining small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data with coarse-grained (CG) simulations is developed to characterize the assembly states of Hck, a member of the Src-family kinases, under various conditions in solution. First, a basis set comprising a small number of assembly states is generated from extensive CG simulations. Second, a(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells have recently been implicated in atherogenesis, primarily for their ability to recognize and respond to lipid antigens. Because the atherosclerotic lesion is characterized by the retention and modification of lipids in the vascular wall, NKT cells may be involved in promoting the local vascular inflammatory response. Here, we(More)
To determine whether T cells and B cells influence lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, we crossed apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE degrees ) mice with recombination activating gene 2-deficient (RAG2 degrees ) mice. Total plasma cholesterol levels were approximately 20% higher in male apoE degrees mice compared with the apoE degrees RAG2 degrees mice at 8(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to examine whether there is a site-specific effect on atherosclerosis of the absence of mature T and B cells caused by a recombination activating-gene deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice and whether this effect is influence by the extent of backcrossing to C57BL/6 mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Male mice were fed atherogenic diets for(More)
This study tests the hypothesis that autoantibodies to oxidation epitopes on oxidized LDL (OxLDL) promote the clearance of OxLDL from the plasma. Human LDL (hLDL) was injected into immune-competent apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice and immune-deficient apoE(-/-)/recombination-activating gene-deficient mice that lack mature T and B cells and thus(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) transduce the chemical signal of neurotransmitter release into membrane depolarization at excitatory synapses in the brain. The opening of the transmembrane ion channel of these ligand-gated receptors is driven by conformational transitions that are induced by the association of glutamate molecules to the(More)
We have used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in apoA-I-deficient (A-I-/-) mice to probe the in vivo assembly and metabolism of HDL using apoA-I variants, focusing primarily on the role of the C-terminal 32 amino acids (helices 9-10). Lipid, lipoprotein, and apoA-I analyses showed that plasma levels of apoA-I and HDL of the mutants were 40-88% lower than(More)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to influence plasma lipid levels, atherosclerosis, and the immune system. In this study, we fed male LDL receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice and immune incompetent LDLR(-/-) RAG2(-/-) mice diets containing predominantly saturated fats (milk fat) or PUFA (safflower oil) to determine if the response to diet was(More)
The OmpF porin from the Escherichia coli outer membrane folds into a trimer of beta-barrels, each forming a wide aqueous pore allowing the passage of ions and small solutes. A long loop (L3) carrying multiple acidic residues folds into the beta-barrel pore to form a narrow "constriction zone". A strong and highly conserved charge asymmetry is observed at(More)