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Annual, seasonal and semiannual variations of F2-layer electron density (NmF2) and height (hmF2) have been compared with the coupled thermosphere± ionosphere±plasmasphere computational model (CTIP), for geomagnetically quiet conditions. Compared with results from ionosonde data from midlatitudes, CTIP reproduces quite well many observed features of NmF2,(More)
The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2) at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP), without recourse to external in¯uences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present(More)
Influences of surrounded metallic layers (Au, Al, Ag, Cu, and Ti) on whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) are numerically investigated by solving eigenvalue equation for multiple-layer two dimensional circular microresonators. For TM modes, metal layer can provide good optical confinement as its thickness is larger than 0.03 μm. For TE modes, an isolation(More)
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