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OBJECTIVE The mutual drug-drug interaction potential of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor cerivastatin and cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) in kidney transplant recipients receiving individual immunosuppressive treatment was evaluated with respect to pharmacokinetic behavior of either drug and tolerability of concomitant(More)
UNLABELLED Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity, is usually administered as a standard dose of 1 g b.i.d. after renal transplantation. Because MMF dose reductions are associated with inferior outcome, we investigated pre-transplant IMPDH activity, MMF dose reductions and outcome. IMPDH activity(More)
BACKGROUND The immunosuppressive activity of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is based on the reversible inhibition of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) by mycophenolic acid (MPA). It was the aim of this study to develop a nonradioactive method for specific measurement of IMPDH activity in isolated peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC). METHODS The(More)
OBJECTIVE Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is routinely used as an immunosuppressant in a fixed daily dose regimen although it shows marked fluctuations in pharmacokinetics, and despite the fact that in regard to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), there is a well-known association between the pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome. METHOD(More)
The immunosuppressive activity of Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) is based on the reversible inhibition of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) by mycophenolic acid. Pharmacodynamic monitoring by measurement of IMPDH activity reflects directly the biological response to MMF. For measurement of IMPDH activity in peripheral mononuclear cells we(More)
Tiotropium, a new potent anticholinergic bronchodilator, is excreted mainly by the kidney. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of tiotropium in renal impairment, the authors evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety after administration of a single dose of intravenous tiotropium 4.8 microg, given as an infusion over 15 minutes in subjects with normal renal(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. DESIGN Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. SETTING Various postgraduate(More)
Recent studies have implicated a variant of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), associated with increased activity of this enzyme, in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. This study provides a systematic review of all cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies in patients with insulin-dependent (IDDM) or(More)
AIMS To evaluate the effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of pioglitazone and its metabolites M-III and M-IV with impaired renal function and normal renal function. METHODS In a phase-I, open-label, parallel-group study, six healthy subjects with normal renal function (creatinine clearance> 80 ml min-1), nine patients with(More)