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Despite many decades of study, mitotic chromosome structure and composition remain poorly characterized. Here, we have integrated quantitative proteomics with bioinformatic analysis to generate a series of independent classifiers that describe the approximately 4,000 proteins identified in isolated mitotic chromosomes. Integrating these classifiers by(More)
Higher-order multi-protein complexes such as RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complexes with transcription initiation factors are often not amenable to X-ray structure determination. Here, we show that protein cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has now sufficiently advanced as a tool to extend the Pol II structure to a 15-subunit, 670 kDa complex of(More)
The enzymatic transgalactosylation from lactose to fructose leading to the prebiotic disaccharide lactulose was investigated using the beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae and the hyperthermostable beta-glycosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus (CelB). The conditions for highest lactulose yields relative to the initial lactose concentration were(More)
UNLABELLED Dynamic proteins and multi-protein complexes govern most biological processes. Cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CLMS) is increasingly successful in providing residue-resolution data on static proteinaceous structures. Here we investigate the technical feasibility of recording dynamic processes using isotope-labelling for quantitation. We(More)
Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking(More)
UNLABELLED xiNET is a visualization tool for exploring cross-linking/mass spectrometry results. The interactive maps of the cross-link network that it generates are a type of node-link diagram. In these maps xiNET displays: (1) residue resolution positional information including linkage sites and linked peptides; (2) all types of cross-linking reaction(More)
The aminopeptidase P (PepP, EC 3.4.11.9) gene from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis DSM 20481 was cloned, sequenced and expressed recombinantly in E. coli BL21 (DE3) for the first time. PepP is involved in the hydrolysis of proline-rich proteins and, thus, is important for the debittering of protein hydrolysates. For accurate determination of PepP activity, a(More)
A continuous enzymatic process for the production of the prebiotic disaccharide lactulose through transgalactosylation was developed using free and immobilized beta-glycosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus. The hyperthermostable beta-glycosidase (CelB) was immobilized onto an anion-exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-93) or onto Eupergit C with immobilization yields(More)
Glutamic acid racemases (MurI, E.C. 5.1.1.3) catalyse the racemisation of L- and D-glutamic acid. MurIs are essential enzymes for bacterial cell wall synthesis, which requires d-glutamic acid as an indispensable building block. Therefore these enzymes are suitable targets for antimicrobial drugs as well as for the potential design of auxotrophic selection(More)
The industrial manufacturing process of lactose-free milk products depends on the application of commercial β-galactosidase (lactase) preparations. These preparations are often obtained from Kluyveromyces lactis. There is a gene present in the genome of K. lactis which should encode for an enzyme called arylsulfatase (EC 3.1.6.1). Therefore, this enzyme(More)