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Both theory and experiments have demonstrated that sex can facilitate adaptation, potentially yielding a group-level advantage to sex. However, it is unclear whether this process can help solve the more difficult problem of the maintenance of sex within populations. Using experimental populations of the facultatively sexual rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus,(More)
The prevalence of smoking is markedly elevated in schizophrenia. Low smoking cessation rates and reports that some smokers with schizophrenia experience an acute increase in symptoms during attempts to quit smoking, suggest a self-medication model. Alternatively, smoking may modulate medication side effects. The effects of treated and untreated smoking(More)
The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related(More)
Feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary change may play important roles in community and ecosystem functioning, but a complete eco-evolutionary feedback loop has not been demonstrated at the community level, and we know little about molecular mechanisms underlying this kind of eco-evolutionary dynamics. In predator-prey (rotifer-alga) microcosms,(More)
Discovering why natural population densities change over time and vary with location is a central goal of ecological and evolutional disciplines. The recognition that even simple ecological systems can undergo chaotic behaviour has made chaos a topic of considerable interest among theoretical ecologists. However, there is still a lack of experimental(More)
Character evolution that affects ecological community interactions often occurs contemporaneously with temporal changes in population size, potentially altering the very nature of those dynamics. Such eco-evolutionary processes may be most readily explored in systems with short generations and simple genetics. Asexual and cyclically parthenogenetic(More)
Adaptive variation in the traits determining ecological interactions can lead to evolution so rapid that ecological dynamics change course while in progress (i.e., 'eco-evolutionary dynamics'). However, little is known about how the qualitative properties of eco-evolutionary dynamics (e.g., cycling, equilibrium, etc.) are affected by the amount of heritable(More)
Rapid evolution in ecologically relevant traits has recently been recognized to significantly alter the interaction between consumers and their resources, a key interaction in all ecological communities. While these eco-evolutionary dynamics have been shown to occur when prey populations are evolving, little is known about the role of predator evolution and(More)
The evolution of sex is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. While this topic has been the focus of much theoretical work, there is a serious dearth of empirical data. A simple yet fundamental question is how sex affects the mean and variance in fitness. Despite its importance to the theory, this type of data is available for only a handful of taxa.(More)
Evolution on contemporary timescales has recently been recognized as an important driver for ecological change. It is now well established that evolutionary change can affect the interactions between species within a few generations and that ecological interactions may influence the outcome of evolution in return. This tight link between ecology and(More)