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We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data-mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are(More)
Polar bears (PBs) are superbly adapted to the extreme Arctic environment and have become emblematic of the threat to biodiversity from global climate change. Their divergence from the lower-latitude brown bear provides a textbook example of rapid evolution of distinct phenotypes. However, limited mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence conflicts in the(More)
Approximately 800 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were sequenced from 76 Gyrodactylus specimens of 32 salmonid host populations, i.e. from Salmo salar, Thymallus thymallus, and Oncorhynchus mykiss in Norway, Sweden and Latvia. The COI sequences indicated a substantial intraspecific differentiation of Gyrodactylus salaris and(More)
The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are important model genes for understanding selective forces in evolution. Here, we document, using a cloning and sequencing approach, high polymorphism at the exon 2 of the MHC class II B (MHCIIB) genes in the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica); a minimum of 61 unique alleles were detected in 20(More)
The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an(More)
We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Microsatellites are frequently used genetic markers in a wide range of applications, primarily due to their high length polymorphism levels that can easily be genotyped by fragment length analysis. However, the mode of microsatellite evolution is yet not fully understood, and the role of interrupting motifs for the stability of microsatellites(More)
Proof of authenticity is the greatest challenge in palaeogenetic research, and many safeguards have become standard routine in laboratories specialized on ancient DNA research. Here we describe an as-yet unknown source of artifacts that will require special attention in the future. We show that ancient DNA extracts on their own can have an inhibitory and(More)
Gyrodactylus thymalli Zitnan, 1960 and G. salaris Malmberg, 1957 have an indistinguishable ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequence, but exhibit surprisingly high levels of intra- and interspecific sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (CO1) gene. To test whether different populations of these reportedly very similar(More)
The polar bear has become the flagship species in the climate-change discussion. However, little is known about how past climate impacted its evolution and persistence, given an extremely poor fossil record. Although it is undisputed from analyses of mitochondrial (mt) DNA that polar bears constitute a lineage within the genetic diversity of brown bears,(More)