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Researching the epidemiology and estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) for mainstream populations anywhere in the world has presented a challenge to researchers. Three major approaches have been used in the past: surveillance and record review systems, clinic-based studies, and active(More)
OBJECTIVES The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) were determined in a third primary school cohort in a community in South Africa (SA). METHODS An active case ascertainment, two-tier screening methodology, and the revised Institute of Medicine diagnostic criteria were employed among 818(More)
BACKGROUND Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a Pavlovian paradigm that involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Animal studies have shown that binge consumption of alcohol during pregnancy impairs EBC and that this impairment is likely mediated by a loss of neurons in the(More)
OBJECTIVES This study determined the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community, and methodology was designed for the multidisciplinary study of fetal alcohol syndrome in developing societies. METHODS An active case ascertainment, 2-tier methodology was used among 992 first-grade pupils. A case-control design, using measures of(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a second primary school cohort in a community in South Africa. METHOD Active case ascertainment, two-tier screening, and Institute of Medicine assessment methodology were employed among 857 first grade pupils, most born in 1993.(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a Western European population are lacking and are of particular interest in settings where the usual pattern of alcohol consumption is thought to be daily drinking with meals. To address these issues, an(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has demonstrated that heavy prenatal alcohol exposure affects the size and shape of the corpus callosum (CC) and compromises interhemispheric transfer of information. The aim of this study was to confirm the previous reports of poorer performance on a finger localization test (FLT) of interhemispheric transfer in a cohort of(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤ 25th percentile on height,(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were determined in this fourth study of first-grade children in a South African community. METHODS Active case ascertainment methods were employed among 747 first-grade pupils. The detailed characteristics of children within the continuum of FASD are contrasted with(More)
BACKGROUND Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. METHODS Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by(More)