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Neuroprotective strategies, including free radical scavengers, ion channel modulators, and anti-inflammatory agents, have been extensively explored in the last 2 decades for the treatment of neurological diseases. Unfortunately, none of the neuroprotectants has been proved effective in clinical trails. In the current study, we demonstrated that methylene(More)
Signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in the modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the role and underlying mechanism of mTOR signaling in poststroke neuroinflammation are largely unexplored. In this study, we injected rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, by the intracerebroventricular route 6 h(More)
Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells maintain the immune tolerance and prevent inflammatory responses in the periphery. However, the presence of Treg cells in the CNS under steady state has not been studied. Here, for the first time, we show a substantial TCRαβ (+) CD4(+) Foxp3(+) T-cell population (cerebral Treg cells) in the rat cerebrum,(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of proteinases that degrade components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). There is increasing evidence for a link between the activation of MMPs and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, in which both beneficial and detrimental actions of MMPs have been suggested. It has been demonstrated that MMPs could degrade(More)
Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of(More)
Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving cells from the immune system and the central nerve system (CNS). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant class of white blood cells, and typically the first type of leukocyte recruited to sites of inflammation. In the CNS, astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell population and(More)
Clinical application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for stroke is limited by hemorrhagic transformation, which narrows rtPA's therapeutic window. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that rtPA is potentially neurotoxic if it traverses a compromised blood brain barrier. Here, we demonstrated that pyruvate protects cultured HT22(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the depletion of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibits neural progenitor cell migration after brain ischemia. However, whether Tregs affect neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation is unclear. We explored the effect of Tregs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) after ischemia. Tregs were isolated and(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are protected in a metabolically dormant state within the bone marrow stem cell niche. Inflammation has been shown to disrupt HSC dormancy and cause multiple functional changes. Here, we investigated whether HSC functions were altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-prone mice and whether this contributed to clinical(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) has long been recognized as a site of 'immune privilege' because of the existence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) which presumably isolates CNS from the peripheral immunosurveillance. Different from the peripheral organs, CNS is unique in response to all forms of CNS injury and disease which is mainly mediated by resident(More)