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Over the past decade, numerous studies have documented profound racial and ethnic disparities in disease in the United States. This essay examines how popular and scientific concepts of race and ethnicity converge with dominant understandings of genetics to inform the design and interpretation of research, public health policy, and medical practice.(More)
When growth is stimulated in the normally quiescent adult rat liver by partial hepatectomy, steady state levels of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for c-fos, c-myc, and p53 increase sequentially during the prereplicative phase which precedes DNA synthesis. Levels of c-fos mRNA are elevated at least 4-fold within 15 min after partial hepatectomy and decrease rapidly(More)
The fetal liver isozymes aldolase A and pyruvate kinase K increase in livers of adult rats fed a choline deficient-diet containing 0.1% ethionine. Oval cells isolated by centrifugal elutriation from preneoplastic livers of animals receiving the carcinogenic diet contained these fetal forms as well as fetal-adult isozyme hybrids. In contrast, parenchymal(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a growth factor with multiple biological properties including stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation. To determine whether TGF-beta is involved in hepatocyte growth responses in vivo, we measured the levels of TGF-beta mRNA in normal liver and during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in(More)
Two epithelial cell lines designated LE/2 and LE/6 were established from cells isolated by centrifugal elutriation from the livers of carcinogen-treated rats. Both cell lines exhibit some characteristics of fetal liver cells, such as the expression of the 2.3-kilobase alpha-fetoprotein mRNA, aldolase A, and lactate dehydrogenases 4 and 5. Primary cultures(More)
We have used a system of nutritional manipulation to investigate whether hepatocytes of the normal liver can be primed for replication in vivo. In this system, rats that are denied protein for 3 days undergo a burst of hepatic DNA synthesis and mitosis when they are refed amino acids, while normally fed or starved rats do not respond. To determine if(More)
Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in regulation of cell growth. We tested the hypothesis that the growth inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) involves activation of protein phosphatases. Exposure of human keratinocytes in culture to 400 pM TGF-beta 1 for 48 h led to 80% inhibition of DNA synthesis as(More)
We have established three cell lines from keratinizing and nonkeratinizing cervical carcinomas with distinct growth properties in vitro and in vivo. Each cell line contained human papillomavirus type 16 DNA sequences, but the lines differed in the physical state of the viral genome present in the cells. A high copy number of episomal human papillomavirus(More)
We have established an in vivo/in vitro system in which epithelial cells ("oval cells") isolated from livers of rats fed a carcinogenic diet for a very brief period are placed in culture and transfected with an oncogene. Injection s.c. into nude mice of oval cells transfected with the activated c-Ha-ras (EJ oncogene) produces tumors with morphological(More)