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The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin pore has been determined to 1.9 A resolution. Contained within the mushroom-shaped homo-oligomeric heptamer is a solvent-filled channel, 100 A in length, that runs along the sevenfold axis and ranges from 14 A to 46 A in diameter. The lytic, transmembrane domain comprises the lower half of a(More)
The 1,852,442-bp sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen, has been determined and contains 1,752 predicted protein-encoding genes. Approximately one-third of these genes have no identifiable function, with the remainder falling into previously characterized categories of known microbial function. Consistent with the(More)
The K+-Cl- cotransporters (KCCs) belong to the gene family of electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters, which also includes two bumetanide-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters and a thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl- cotransporter. We have cloned cDNAs encoding mouse KCC3, human KCC3, and human KCC4, three new members of this gene family. The KCC3 and KCC4(More)
BACKGROUND Azoospermia factor c (AZFc) subdeletions were reported to be significant risk factors for spermatogenesis. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of classical AZF deletions and AZFc subdeletions and their impact on male infertility in a Han-Chinese population. METHODS This study analysed a population of 699 subjects, including 451 idiopathic(More)
The presenilins and nicastrin, a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, form high molecular weight complexes that are involved in cleaving the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) and Notch in their transmembrane domains. The former process (termed gamma-secretase cleavage) generates amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which is involved in the pathogenesis of(More)
AIMS To determine sperm nuclear DNA integrity and to investigate the relation between fenvalerate (FE) exposure and spermatozoa DNA damage. METHODS Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by a modified alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The olive(More)
A structurally diverse group of chemopreventive agents was evaluated using in vitro biomarkers of the carcinogenesis process. With cultured human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells, sulfur-containing compounds such as 1.2-dithiole-3-thione and sulforaphane, and phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid phenethyl ester and genistein, showed potent inhibition(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aims to investigate expression of interleukin 12 (IL-12) family cytokines IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the effect of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on their expression. METHODS Plasma concentration of IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, IL-35, IL-6 and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies in(More)
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) catalyses the transglycosylation of xyloglucan, the major hemicellulose polymer, which has been thought to mediate the cross-linking of cellulose microfibrils in cellular walls and proposed to be involved in the control of cell wall relaxation. To understand the relationship between litchi fruit cracking and gene(More)