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The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin pore has been determined to 1.9 A resolution. Contained within the mushroom-shaped homo-oligomeric heptamer is a solvent-filled channel, 100 A in length, that runs along the sevenfold axis and ranges from 14 A to 46 A in diameter. The lytic, transmembrane domain comprises the lower half of a(More)
The 1,852,442-bp sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen, has been determined and contains 1,752 predicted protein-encoding genes. Approximately one-third of these genes have no identifiable function, with the remainder falling into previously characterized categories of known microbial function. Consistent with the(More)
The K+-Cl- cotransporters (KCCs) belong to the gene family of electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters, which also includes two bumetanide-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters and a thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl- cotransporter. We have cloned cDNAs encoding mouse KCC3, human KCC3, and human KCC4, three new members of this gene family. The KCC3 and KCC4(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a polygenic disorder affecting approximately 1 in 1000 adults. Recent data have implicated interferons (IFN) in the pathogenesis, and the expressions of many genes downstream of IFNs are regulated at the level of histone modifications. We examined H4 acetylation (H4ac) and gene expression in monocytes from patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Azoospermia factor c (AZFc) subdeletions were reported to be significant risk factors for spermatogenesis. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of classical AZF deletions and AZFc subdeletions and their impact on male infertility in a Han-Chinese population. METHODS This study analysed a population of 699 subjects, including 451 idiopathic(More)
The K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCCs) are members of the cation-chloride cotransporter gene family and fall into two phylogenetic subgroups: KCC2 paired with KCC4 and KCC1 paired with KCC3. We report a functional comparison in Xenopus oocytes of KCC1 and KCC4, widely expressed representatives of these two subgroups. KCC1 and KCC4 exhibit differential(More)
The Type II mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 (G.D. Price, M.R. Badger [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 514-525) are able to accumulate a large pool of inorganic carbon inside the cell, but are unable to utilize it for CO(2) fixation, resulting in a high CO(2)-requiring phenotype. We have isolated a 3.5-kb BamHI clone (pT2) that complements the(More)
Fas-mediated apoptosis is essential for the elimination of cells, and impaired apoptosis can have severe detrimental consequences. Bisindolylmaleimide VIII potentiated Fas-mediated apoptosis in human astrocytoma 1321N1 cells and in Molt-4T cells, both of which were devoid of apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody in the absence of bisindolylmaleimide VIII,(More)
cortex—areas that typically exhibit deactivation during task performance. Clearly, optimal performance during cognitively demanding tasks requires a delicate balance between these two antagonistic networks. It is possible, therefore, that in depression intrusive ‘noise’ generated by an overactive DMN adversely impacts on cognitive function and could, in(More)
Carboxylesterases play important roles in the metabolism of endogenous and foreign compounds, therefore, xenobiotic regulation of carboxylesterase gene expression has both physiological and pharmacological significance. We previously reported that liver microsomal esterase activity was significantly decreased in rats treated with dexamethasone accompanied(More)