Learn More
A detailed understanding of the many facets of the Internet's topological structure is critical for evaluating the performance of networking protocols, for assessing the effectiveness of proposed techniques to protect the network from nefarious intrusions and attacks, or for developing improved designs for resource provisioning. Previous studies of topology(More)
The search for unifying properties of complex networks is popular, challenging, and important. For modeling approaches that focus on robustness and fragility as unifying concepts, the Internet is an especially attractive case study, mainly because its applications are ubiquitous and pervasive, and widely available exposition exists at every level of detail.(More)
There is a large, popular, and growing literature on " scale-free networks " with the Internet along with metabolic networks representing perhaps the canonical examples. While this has in many ways reinvigorated graph theory, there is unfortunately no consistent, precise definition of scale-free graphs and few rigorous proofs of many of their claimed(More)
Building on a recent effort that combines a first-principles approach to modeling router-level connectivity with a more pragmatic use of statistics and graph theory, we show in this paper that for the Internet, an improved understanding of its physical infrastructure is possible by viewing the physical connectivity as an annotated graph that delivers raw(More)
TCP-AQM can be interpreted as distributed primal-dual algorithms to maximize aggregate utility over source rates. We show that an equilibrium of TCP/IP, if exists, maximizes aggregate utility over both source rates and routes, provided congestion prices are used as link costs. An equilibrium exists if and only if this utility maximization problem and its(More)
Although the " scale-free " literature is large and growing, it gives neither a precise definition of scale-free graphs nor rigorous proofs of many of their claimed properties. In fact, it is easily shown that the existing theory has many inherent contradictions and verifiably false claims. In this paper, we propose a new, mathematically precise, and(More)
Network protocols in layered architectures have historically been obtained on an ad hoc basis, and many of the recent cross-layer designs are conducted through piecemeal approaches. They may instead be holisti-cally analyzed and systematically designed as distributed solutions to some global optimization problems. This paper presents a survey of the recent(More)
The recombinant laccase from Thermus thermophilus was applied to the biobleaching of wheat straw pulp. The best bleaching effect was when the pulp was treated with 3 U laccase g−1 dry pulp at 90°C, pH 4.5, 8% consistency for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, the pulp brightness was increased by 3.3% ISO, and the pulp kappa number was decreased by 5.6 U.(More)
BACKGROUND Systematic reviews (SRs) can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of(More)