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A uniform treatment is presented of speciications, programs, and programming for communicating processes with machine state. The treatment is based on addition of a speciication statement to a CSP-like language. The extended language is viewed as a speciication language in which programs are identiied with a subclass of speciications. A semantics is(More)
A reenement calculus is introduced to support the top-down development of concurrent systems of a type which abstracts occam's communication structure. The main idea is to use the weakest-environment concept to decompose a concurrent system R into its communicating components: given one component P of R, and a communication interface between P and its(More)
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