Lumbani Munthali

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SETTING A district in rural sub-Saharan Africa with a recently introduced antiretroviral (ARV) programme. The population has high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and high tuberculosis (TB) incidence. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of HIV and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related symptoms in people presenting with chronic(More)
The occurrence of mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is no longer disputed. However, their frequency, and the impact they may have on our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis and epidemiology, remains undetermined. Most previous studies of frequency applied genotyping techniques to cultured M. tuberculosis isolates and found mixed(More)
BACKGROUND Despite increasing interest in possible differences in virulence and transmissibility between different genotypes of M. tuberculosis, very little is known about how genotypes within a population change over decades, or about relationships to HIV infection. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In a population-based study in rural Malawi we have(More)
SETTING There is increasing interest in social structural interventions for tuberculosis. The association between poverty and tuberculosis is well established in many settings, but less clear in rural Africa. In Karonga District, Malawi, we found an association between higher socioeconomic status and tuberculosis from 1986-1996, independent of HIV status(More)
We assessed the impact on measured burden and outcomes of the revised World Health Organization and Malawi guidelines reclassifying people with single (including 'scanty') positive smears as smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases. In a retrospective cohort in rural Malawi, 567 (34%) of 1670 smear-positive episodes were based on single positive smears(More)
BACKGROUND HIV infection reduces the likelihood that individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis are smear positive and that they have cavitatory disease. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may shift the pattern of disease to be more similar to that of HIV negative patients. This would aid diagnosis--which often depends on sputum smears--but would also increase(More)
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