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Apoptosis, an essential and basic biological phenomenon, is regulated in a complex manner by a multitude of factors. Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), an anti-apoptotic member of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of apoptosis-regulating proteins, exemplifies a number of the mechanisms by which a protein's contribution to cell fate may be modified. The(More)
Human neutrophils normally have a very short half-life and die by apoptosis. Cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can delay this apoptosis via increases in the cellular levels of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family with a rapid turnover rate. Here we have shown that inhibition of the proteasome (a)(More)
BACKGROUND The function of local renin-angiotensin systems in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue remains largely unknown. A polymorphism of the human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified in which the insertion (I) rather than deletion (D) allele is associated with lower ACE activity in body tissues and increased response to some(More)
We summarize results of a November 2006 workshop dealing with recent research on the estimation of landbird abundance from count data. Our conceptual framework includes a decomposition of the probability of detecting a bird potentially exposed to sampling efforts into four separate probabilities. Primary inference methods are described and include distance(More)
Increased expression of the regulatory subunit of HIFs (HIF-1α or HIF-2α) is associated with metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Understanding how HIFs are regulated is of intense interest. Intriguingly, the molecular mechanisms that link mitochondrial function with the HIF-regulated response to hypoxia remain to be unraveled. Here we(More)
Scleractinian corals have demonstrated the ability to shuffle their endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities (genus Symbiodinium) during periods of acute environmental stress. This has been proposed as a mechanism of acclimation, which would be increased by a diverse and flexible association with Symbiodinium. Conventional molecular techniques used to(More)
While estimates of connectivity are important for effective management, few such estimates are available for reef invertebrates other than for corals. Barrel sponges are one of the largest and most conspicuous members of the coral reef fauna across the Indo-Pacific and given their large size, longevity and ability to process large volumes of water, they(More)
The interactions between two opposing teams lead to the emergence of unique game patterns. In volleyball, attack efficacy emerges as the strongest predictor of the final result and thus it becomes of foremost importance to understand which game patterns afford the attaining of higher attack efficacies. These rely on the quality of the setting action. In(More)
A detailed understanding of the genetic structure of populations and an accurate interpretation of processes driving contemporary patterns of gene flow are fundamental to successful spatial conservation management. The field of seascape genetics seeks to incorporate environmental variables and processes into analyses of population genetic data to improve(More)
Connectivity is widely recognized as an important component in developing effective management and conservation strategies. Although managers are generally most interested in demographic, rather than genetic connectivity, new analytic approaches are able to provide estimates of both demographic and genetic connectivity measures from genetic data. Combining(More)