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Increased expression of the regulatory subunit of HIFs (HIF-1α or HIF-2α) is associated with metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Understanding how HIFs are regulated is of intense interest. Intriguingly, the molecular mechanisms that link mitochondrial function with the HIF-regulated response to hypoxia remain to be unraveled. Here we(More)
We summarize results of a November 2006 workshop dealing with recent research on the estimation of landbird abundance from count data. Our conceptual framework includes a decomposition of the probability of detecting a bird potentially exposed to sampling efforts into four separate probabilities. Primary inference methods are described and include distance(More)
BACKGROUND The function of local renin-angiotensin systems in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue remains largely unknown. A polymorphism of the human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified in which the insertion (I) rather than deletion (D) allele is associated with lower ACE activity in body tissues and increased response to some(More)
Apoptosis, an essential and basic biological phenomenon, is regulated in a complex manner by a multitude of factors. Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), an anti-apoptotic member of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of apoptosis-regulating proteins, exemplifies a number of the mechanisms by which a protein's contribution to cell fate may be modified. The(More)
While estimates of connectivity are important for effective management, few such estimates are available for reef invertebrates other than for corals. Barrel sponges are one of the largest and most conspicuous members of the coral reef fauna across the Indo-Pacific and given their large size, longevity and ability to process large volumes of water, they(More)
A detailed understanding of the genetic structure of populations and an accurate interpretation of processes driving contemporary patterns of gene flow are fundamental to successful spatial conservation management. The field of seascape genetics seeks to incorporate environmental variables and processes into analyses of population genetic data to improve(More)
Connectivity is widely recognized as an important component in developing effective management and conservation strategies. Although managers are generally most interested in demographic, rather than genetic connectivity, new analytic approaches are able to provide estimates of both demographic and genetic connectivity measures from genetic data. Combining(More)
Human neutrophils normally have a very short half-life and die by apoptosis. Cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can delay this apoptosis via increases in the cellular levels of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family with a rapid turnover rate. Here we have shown that inhibition of the proteasome (a)(More)
Mcl-1 is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that plays a central role in cell survival of neutrophils and other cells. The protein is unusual among family members in that it has a very short half-life of 2-3 h. In this report, we show that sodium salicylate (at 10 mM) greatly enhances the rate at which neutrophils undergo apoptosis and,(More)