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Most inbred strains of mice are susceptible to Leishmania amazonensis infection. We have examined the mechanism(s) underlying this generalized susceptibility using mice deficient in T cell development or in the expression of either MHC class I or class II. In contrast to wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice that uniformly developed large ulcerating lesions, mice(More)
The levels of protection found in vaccine studies of murine visceral leishmaniasis are significantly lower than for cutaneous leishmaniasis; whether this is due to the high-challenge murine model employed and/or is a consequence of differences required in tissue-specific local immune responses is not understood. Consequently, an intradermal murine model of(More)
In the search for a leishmaniasis vaccine, extensive studies have been carried out with promastigote (insect stage) molecules. Information in this regard on amastigote (mammalian host stage) molecules is limited. To investigate host immune responses to Leishmania amastigote antigens, we purified three stage-specific antigens (A2, P4, and P8) from in(More)
Extracellular amastigote-like forms of Leishmania amazonensis can be maintained in axenic culture at 32 degrees C, pH 4.6, with a generation time of approximately 17 hr. This species of Leishmania is of particular interest since it has been associated with cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and mucocutaneous forms of the disease. Immunofluorescence, Western and(More)
To study the role of CD40 ligand (CD40L) in the host immune responses against intracellular pathogens, we infected CD40L knockout (CD40L-/-) mice with Leishmania amazonensis. Although wild-type mice were susceptible to infection and developed progressive ulcerative lesions, tissue parasite burdens in CD40L-/- mice were significantly higher. This heightened(More)
Amazonian localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is caused by parasites of the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. Respectively, these parasites may cause diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). This, together with differing skin test responses, suggests some species-specificity in cell mediated immunity. In this study, T(More)
The purified membrane-associated Leishmania pifanoi amastigote protein P-4 has been shown to induce protective immunity against infection and to elicit preferentially a T helper 1-like response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. As this molecule is potentially important for future vaccine studies, the L.(More)
CD4+ T cell lines raised against the protective leishmanial antigens GP46 and P8 were used to study the presentation of endogenously synthesized Leishmania antigens by infected cells. Using two different sources of macrophages, the I4.07 macrophage cell line (H-2k) which constitutively expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, and(More)
Several hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins have been shown in vitro to interact with host cellular components that are involved in immune regulation. However, there is a paucity of data supporting the relevance of these observations to the in vivo situation. To test the hypothesis that such an interaction suppresses immune responses, we studied a line of(More)