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c Oxygen is a treatment for hypoxaemia, not breathlessness. (Oxygen has not been shown to have any effect on the sensation of breathlessness in non-hypoxaemic patients.) c The essence of this guideline can be summarised simply as a requirement for oxygen to be prescribed according to a target saturation range and for those who administer oxygen therapy to(More)
RATIONALE Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by the formation of plexiform lesions and concentric intimal fibrosis in small pulmonary arteries. The origin of cells contributing to these vascular lesions is uncertain. Endogenous endothelial progenitor cells are potential contributors to this process. OBJECTIVES To determine(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to understand the prevalence and clinical relevance of iron deficiency in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). BACKGROUND Iron availability influences the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia in humans and may be significant in the pathogenesis of IPAH. METHODS Iron deficiency, defined by raised(More)
An auditory "oddball" paradigm was used to elicit the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) from a large sample of young (5 to 15 years) and older (20 to 86 years) persons. Distinct P3a and P3b subcomponents of the P300 were observed within individuals and across trial blocks. Age affected P300 latency in a similar fashion for both(More)
Background—Impaired endothelial homeostasis underlies the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We speculated that PAH patients are deficient in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), potentially contributing to endothelial dysfunction and disease progression. Methods and Results—We recruited 41 patients with Eisenmenger(More)
With significant therapeutic advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the need to identify clinically relevant treatment goals that correlate with long-term outcome has emerged as 1 of the most critical tasks. Current goals include achieving modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance >380 m,(More)
AIMS Right atrial (RA) dilatation may be important for patients' outcome in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal RA and right ventricular (RV) remodelling in PAH patients using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and their relation to clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS Sixty-two(More)
RATIONALE Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia) confers important additional morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of the dual endothelin-1 receptor antagonist bosentan in this patient(More)
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious and costly disease for patients and healthcare systems. Guidelines emphasise the importance of differentiating between patients who are at high risk of mortality (those with shock and/or hypotension), who may be candidates for thrombolytic therapy or surgery, and those with less severe presentations. Recent clinical(More)