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When a masking picture follows some initial stimulus picture, subsequent memory performance for the stimulus is reduced, even when the mask is delayed by 300 ms following stimulus offset. Such a delay is sufftciently long that all perceptual traces of the stimulus have vanished, and therefore the inferred effect of the mask is to interrupt conceptual as(More)
Two experiments were conducted to test the prediction that rats should react with reduced sensitivity/reactivity to nociceptive stimulation in the presence of a cat. In Experiment 1, naloxone or saline was administered, and rats were exposed to no stimulus, a novel stimulus, or a cat. In Experiment 2, rats were exposed to either no stimulus or a cat, and(More)
Six healthy young men and eight early middle-aged men were isolated from environmental time cues for 15 days. For the first 6-7 days (one or two nights adaptation, four nights baseline), their sleep and meals were scheduled to approximate their habitual patterns. Their daily routines were then shifted 6 hours earlier by terminating the sixth or seventh(More)
The effects of the risk of electric shock on the meal patterns of rats living in an operant chamber were investigated. Rats could obtain food by working on a response lever that provided reinforcement according to chained fixed-ratio continuous reinforcement schedules that allowed the animals control over meal size. Using a two-compartment operant chamber(More)
Emerging applications such as solid-state lighting and display technologies require micro-scale vertically emitting lasers with controllable distinct lasing wavelengths and broad wavelength tunability arranged in desired geometrical patterns to form "super-pixels". Conventional edge-emitting lasers and current surface-emitting lasers that require abrupt(More)
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