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Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is(More)
1. In phenylephrine (PHE) (1 micro M)-precontracted superior mesenteric arteries from adult rats, low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2), 10-100 micro M) caused only contraction, while high concentration of H(2)O(2) (0.3-1 mM) caused a biphasic response: a transient contraction followed by a relaxation response. 2. Endothelium removal did not(More)
Asthma is a disease characterised by reversible contraction of airway smooth muscle. Many signalling pathways are now known to underlie that contraction, almost all of which revolve around Ca(2+) handling. Ca(2+) homeostasis in turn is governed by a wide variety of ionic mechanisms, which are still poorly understood. The present review will briefly(More)
  • Luke J Janssen
  • 2002
In general, excitation-contraction coupling in muscle is dependent on membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization to regulate the opening of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and, thereby, influence intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Thus Ca(2+) channel blockers and K(+) channel openers are important tools in the arsenals against(More)
We compared the effects of two redox forms of nitric oxide, NO(+) [liberated by S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP)] and NO. [liberated by 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) in the presence of superoxide dismutase], on cytosolic concentration of Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i); single cells) and tone (intact strips) obtained from human main stem bronchi and canine(More)
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, primarily of the L-subtype. These may play a role in excitation-contraction coupling of ASM, although other signaling pathways may also contribute: one of these includes Rho and its downstream effector molecule Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Although voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx and(More)
We examined the ionic mechanisms underlying the responses of canine trachealis to superoxide (generated in vitro by using xanthine oxidase or added exogenously) and peroxide (generated spontaneously in vitro by the dismutation of superoxide or added exogenously). Although neither had any effect on resting tone, both triggered relaxations in(More)
Ultimately, asthma is a disease characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). The earliest approach to the treatment of asthma comprised the use of xanthines and anti-cholinergics with the later introduction of anti-histamines and anti-leukotrienes. Agents directed at ion channels on the smooth muscle membrane (Ca2+ channel blockers, K+(More)
  • L J Janssen
  • 2001
Isoprostanes are produced during peroxidation of membrane lipids by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Initially, they were recognized as being valuable markers of oxidative stress, and in the past 10 years, dozens of disease states and experimental conditions with diverse etiologies have been shown to be associated with marked increases in urinary,(More)
Although isoprostanes generally act on smooth muscle via TXA(2)-selective prostanoid receptors (TPs), some suggest other prostanoid receptors or possibly even a novel isoprostane-selective receptor might be involved. We studied contractions to several isoprostanes in porcine pulmonary vasculature using organ bath techniques. 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2)(More)