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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical in innate immune responses to pathogens and lymphoid organ development. Similar to CD4(+) T helper (Th) cell subsets, ILC subsets positive for interleukin-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) produce distinct sets of effector cytokines. However, the molecular control of IL-7Rα(+) ILC development and maintenance is unclear. Here,(More)
CD28 costimulation is essential for CD4(+) T cell proliferation, survival, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and T helper type 2 development. To define the nature of the signals that may drive different T cell responses, we have done a structure-function analysis of the CD28 cytoplasmic tail in primary T cells. CD28-mediated T cell proliferation and IL-2(More)
Macrophages regulate the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of chronic inflammatory responses and their function depends on their activation status. Studies in mice infected with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni have been particularly helpful in defining the in vivo function of classically and alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs). These(More)
Macrophages play key roles in wound repair and fibrosis by regulating extracellular matrix turnover. Macrophages can process matrix components themselves, but also recruit and alter the functions of other cell types that directly build or degrade extracellular matrix. Classically activated macrophages (CAM, also called M1) tend to promote tissue injury(More)
M2 macrophages promote tumor growth and metastasis, but their interactions with specific tumor cell populations are poorly characterized. Using a mouse model of spontaneous melanoma, we showed that CD34- but not CD34+ tumor-initiating cells (TICs) depend on M2 macrophages for survival and proliferation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and(More)
Macrophages are found in close proximity with collagen-producing myofibroblasts and indisputably play a key role in fibrosis. They produce profibrotic mediators that directly activate fibroblasts, including transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelet-derived growth factor, and control extracellular matrix turnover by regulating the balance of various(More)
The interactions among serum components and cationic lipid-nucleic acid complexes are central to the understanding of how serum inhibits cellular delivery of oligonucleotides in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that several serum proteins, in particular bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and macroglobulin, interact with cationic(More)
De novo expression of Muc5ac, a mucin not normally expressed in the intestinal tract, is induced in the cecum of mice resistant to Trichuris muris infection. In this study, we investigated the role of Muc5ac, which is detected shortly before worm expulsion and is associated with the production of interleukin-13 (IL-13), in resistance to this nematode.(More)
We show that lipoplexes activate complement in human serum in vitro and deplete complement when administered intravenously (i.v.) to mice. This raised the possibility that complement proteins might alter gene expression mediated by lipoplex in animals. To investigate this phenomenon, complement levels were depleted to less than 5% in ICR mice by(More)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has multiple, sometimes opposing, functions during an inflammatory response. It is a potent inducer of T-cell proliferation and T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 effector T-cell differentiation and provides T cells with a long-lasting competitive advantage resulting in the optimal survival and function of memory cells. In a regulatory role, IL-2(More)