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Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling must be tightly regulated to avoid excessive inflammation and to allow for tissue repair and the return to homeostasis after infection and tissue injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important controllers of TLR signalling. Several miRNAs are induced by TLR activation in innate immune cells and these and other(More)
The tumor suppressor PDCD4 is a proinflammatory protein that promotes activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and suppresses interleukin 10 (IL-10). Here we found that mice deficient in PDCD4 were protected from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death. The induction of NF-kappaB and IL-6 by LPS required PDCD4, whereas LPS enhanced IL-10 induction in(More)
Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is an important inflammatory mediator of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that oligomers of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein that forms amyloid deposits in the pancreas during type 2 diabetes, triggered the NLRP3 inflammasome and generated mature IL-1β. One therapy for type 2 diabetes, glyburide, suppressed IAPP-mediated IL-1β(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in host defence against invading pathogens, functioning as primary sensors of microbial products and activating signalling pathways that induce the expression of immune and pro-inflammatory genes. However, TLRs have also been implicated in several immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. As the immune system needs(More)
An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is central to antimicrobial defenses. This response is controlled by a collaboration involving signal-dependent activation of transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, and chromatin-modifying factors. We have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that acts as a key regulator of this(More)
Several effects of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), have been described in the central nervous system, and one area of the brain where marked changes have been reported is the hippocampus. Among these changes are an IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of long term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-granule cell synapses and an(More)
There is a growing interest in the targeting of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) for the prevention and treatment of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several new compounds are now undergoing preclinical and clinical evaluation, with a particular focus on TLR7 and TLR9 activators as adjuvants in(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals that initiate innate immune responses to pathogens must be tightly regulated to prevent excessive inflammatory damage to the host. The adaptor protein Mal is specifically involved in signaling via TLR2 and TLR4. We demonstrate here that after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation Mal becomes phosphorylated by Bruton's tyrosine kinase(More)
Many currently used and candidate vaccine adjuvants are particulate in nature, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Here, we show that particulate adjuvants, including biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) and polystyrene microparticles, dramatically enhance secretion of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by dendritic cells (DCs). The(More)