Luke A. O'Neill

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Signalling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involves five adaptor proteins known as MyD88, MAL, TRIF, TRAM and SARM. Recent insights have revealed additional functions for MyD88 apart from NF-kappaB activation, including activation of the transcription factors IRF1, IRF5 and IRF7, and also a role outside the TLRs in interferon-gamma signalling. Biochemical(More)
Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of(More)
The recognition of microbial pathogens by the innate immune system involves Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Different TLRs recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns, with TLR-4 mediating the response to lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria. All TLRs have a Toll/IL-1 receptor(More)
Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is an important inflammatory mediator of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that oligomers of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein that forms amyloid deposits in the pancreas during type 2 diabetes, triggered the NLRP3 inflammasome and generated mature IL-1β. One therapy for type 2 diabetes, glyburide, suppressed IAPP-mediated IL-1β(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling must be tightly regulated to avoid excessive inflammation and to allow for tissue repair and the return to homeostasis after infection and tissue injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important controllers of TLR signalling. Several miRNAs are induced by TLR activation in innate immune cells and these and other(More)
The tumor suppressor PDCD4 is a proinflammatory protein that promotes activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and suppresses interleukin 10 (IL-10). Here we found that mice deficient in PDCD4 were protected from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death. The induction of NF-kappaB and IL-6 by LPS required PDCD4, whereas LPS enhanced IL-10 induction in(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in host defence against invading pathogens, functioning as primary sensors of microbial products and activating signalling pathways that induce the expression of immune and pro-inflammatory genes. However, TLRs have also been implicated in several immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. As the immune system needs(More)
Transcription factors provide the link between early membrane-proximal signalling events and changes in gene expression. NF-kappa B is one of the best-characterized transcription factors. It is expressed ubiquitously and regulates the expression of many genes, most of which encode proteins that play an important and often determining role in the processes(More)
Metabolic changes in cells that participate in inflammation, such as activated macrophages and T-helper 17 cells, include a shift towards enhanced glucose uptake, glycolysis and increased activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Opposing roles in these changes for hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and AMP-activated protein kinase have been proposed. By(More)
The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was an important event for immunology research and was recognized as such with the awarding of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Jules Hoffmann and Bruce Beutler, who, together with Ralph Steinman, the third winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize and the person who discovered the dendritic cell, were(More)