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The recognition of microbial pathogens by the innate immune system involves Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Different TLRs recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns, with TLR-4 mediating the response to lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria. All TLRs have a Toll/IL-1 receptor(More)
Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of(More)
An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is central to antimicrobial defenses. This response is controlled by a collaboration involving signal-dependent activation of transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, and chromatin-modifying factors. We have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that acts as a key regulator of this(More)
Transcription factors provide the link between early membrane-proximal signalling events and changes in gene expression. NF-kappa B is one of the best-characterized transcription factors. It is expressed ubiquitously and regulates the expression of many genes, most of which encode proteins that play an important and often determining role in the processes(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial in the innate immune response to pathogens, in that they recognize and respond to pathogen associated molecular patterns, which leads to activation of intracellular signaling pathways and altered gene expression. Vaccinia virus (VV), the poxvirus used to vaccinate against smallpox, encodes proteins that antagonize(More)
Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta are known to be elevated in patients with chronic disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. We have investigated the effects of interleukin-1beta on long-term potentiation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated field potentials in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro utilizing field extracellular(More)
The effects of the cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and its receptor antagonist IL-1ra, were studied on long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded extracellularly in the molecular region of the dentate gyrus in response to stimulation of the medial perforant path.(More)
An understanding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signal transduction is a key goal in the effort to provide a molecular basis for the lethal effect of LPS during septic shock and point the way to novel therapies. Rapid progress in this field during the last 6 years has resulted in the discovery of not only the receptor for LPS - Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) -(More)
Since first being described in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have proven to be of great interest to immunologists and investigators interested in the molecular basis to inflammation. They recognize pathogen-derived factors and also products of inflamed tissue, and trigger signaling pathways that lead to activation of(More)
Metabolic changes in cells that participate in inflammation, such as activated macrophages and T-helper 17 cells, include a shift towards enhanced glucose uptake, glycolysis and increased activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Opposing roles in these changes for hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and AMP-activated protein kinase have been proposed. By(More)