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HIF is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies have defined posttranslational modification by prolyl hydroxylation as a key regulatory event that targets HIF-alpha subunits for proteasomal destruction via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex. Here, we define a conserved HIF-VHL-prolyl(More)
Variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with increased body mass index in humans. Here, we show by bioinformatics analysis that FTO shares sequence motifs with Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. We find that recombinant murine Fto catalyzes the Fe(II)- and 2OG-dependent demethylation of 3-methylthymine in(More)
Dendritogenesis, axonogenesis, pathfinding, and target recognition are all affected in distinct ways when Xenopus retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are transfected with constitutively active (ca), wild-type (wt), and dominant negative (dn) Rho-family GTPases in vivo. Dendritogenesis required Rac1 and Cdc42 activity. Moreover, ca-Rac1 caused dendrite(More)
Regulation of the hypoxic response in humans is regulated by the post-translational hydroxylation of hypoxia inducible transcription factor; a recombinant form of a human prolyl-4-hydroxylase (PHD2) was characterised and shown to have an unexpectedly high affinity for, and to copurify with endogenous levels of, its Fe(ii) cofactor and 2-oxoglutarate(More)
Sensing of ambient dioxygen levels and appropriate feedback mechanisms are essential processes for all multicellular organisms. In animals, moderate hypoxia causes an increase in the transcription levels of specific genes, including those encoding vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoietin. The hypoxic response is mediated by hypoxia-inducible(More)
The ferrous iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases catalyse two electron oxidation reactions by coupling the oxidation of substrate to the oxidative decarboxylation of 2OG, giving succinate and carbon dioxide coproducts. The evidence available on the level of incorporation of one atom from dioxygen into succinate is inconclusive. Here, we(More)
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